Últimos itens adicionados do Acervo: Harvard University

A Universidade de Harvard (em inglês: Harvard University) é uma universidade privada membro da Ivy League, localizada em Cambridge, Massachusetts, Estados Unidos, e cuja história, influência e riqueza tornam-a uma das mais prestigiadas universidades do mundo.

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Justice Breyer's Pragmatic Constitutionalism

Sunstein, Cass Robert
Fonte: Yale Law School Publicador: Yale Law School
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
As a law professor at Harvard Law School, Stephen Breyer specialized in administrative law. His important work in that field was marked above all by its unmistakably pragmatic foundations. In an influential book, Breyer emphasized that regulatory problems were "mismatched" to regulatory tools; he urged that an understanding of the particular problem that justified regulation would help in the selection of the right tool. One of Breyer's major innovations lay in an insistence on evaluating traditional doctrines not in a vacuum, but in light of the concrete effects of regulation on the real world. Hence Breyer argued for a close connection between administrative law and regulatory policy. Continuing his pragmatic orientation, he also emphasized the importance of better priority-setting in regulation--of finding mechanisms to ensure that resources are devoted to large problems rather than small ones. While some of Breyer's work touched on the separation of powers, constitutional law was not his field. But as a member of the Supreme Court, Breyer has slowly been developing a distinctive approach of his own, one that also has a pragmatic dimension, and that can be seen as directly responsive to his colleague, Justice Antonin Scalia, and to Scalia's embrace of "originalism": the view that the Constitution should be interpreted to mean what it originally meant.

The Forgotten Half of Food System Reform: Using Food and Agricultural Law to Foster Healthy Food Production

Broad Leib, Emily Michele
Fonte: University of Arkansas School of Law Publicador: University of Arkansas School of Law
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
America is facing widespread problems with its food system, including environmental harms due to externalities from industrial farms; the increasing amount of “food miles” traveled by the products that make up our daily meals; and the growing size and complexity of recent outbreaks of foodborne illnesses. Indeed, the entire system that covers the life cycle of food, through production, processing, distribution, consumption, and food waste management, is in crisis. One of the most disturbing of these well-documented problems with the industrial food system is the increase in rates of obesity and diet-related illnesses. Obesity rates in the U.S. have more than doubled since 1980. Rising rates of obesity stem from what has been called a “toxic” food culture, in which unhealthy food products are cheap and readily available, while healthy foods are unavailable in many urban and rural food deserts or out of reach for those with limited economic means. To improve public health outcomes, and mitigate the impact of obesity and related illnesses, our food and agricultural system requires a transformation. Most discussions about how to overhaul our food and agriculture system focus on reforming or dismantling the industrial, commodity-based food system by erecting barriers to the production and sale of unhealthy...

All (Food) Politics is Local: Increasing Food Access through Local Government Action

Broad Leib, Emily Michele
Fonte: Harvard Law School Publicador: Harvard Law School
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Our national and international food system has implications for a wide range of issues that are important across the political spectrum and include improving health outcomes, reducing environmental impacts, increasing social justice, fostering economic development, and even improving homeland security. This article focuses on healthy-food access, one of the most urgent food policy issues because of its social and economic effects, as well as its public health impacts. In 2010, thirty-six percent of Americans were obese and another thirty-three percent were overweight, while eight percent of Americans were diabetic and thirty-five percent suffered from pre-diabetes. Though food access is not perfectly correlated with public health outcomes, those with limited access to healthy foods often suffer most acutely, as people living in areas with access to a supermarket exhibit a twenty-four percent lower prevalence of obesity than those living in areas without supermarkets. Increased food access has been linked to results as diverse as improved educational outcomes and crime reduction. Local governments have been particularly attentive to food policy concerns. Thirteen cities in North America now have a paid local food policy director or coordinator...

The triage dilemma: opening Pandora's box... ever so slowly

Burkle, Frederick
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Commentary or Review
EN_US

Assessing Children’s Dietary Pesticide Exposure: Direct Measurement of Pesticide Residues in 24-Hr Duplicate Food Samples

Schenck, Frank J.; Pearson, Melanie A.; Wong, Jon W.; Lu, Chensheng Alex
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Background: The data presented here are a response to calls for more direct measurements of pesticide residues in foods consumed by children and provide an opportunity to compare direct measures of pesticide residues in foods representing actual consumption with those reported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Pesticide Data Program. Objective: We measured pesticide residues in 24-hr duplicate food samples collected from a group of 46 young children participating in the Children’s Pesticide Exposure Study (CPES). Methods: Parents were instructed to collect 24-hr duplicate food samples of all conventional fruits, vegetables, and fruit juices equal to the quantity consumed by their children, similarly prewashed/prepared, and from the same source or batch. Individual or composite food items were analyzed for organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid insecticide residues. Results: We collected a total of 239 24-hr duplicate food samples collected from the 46 CPES children. We found 14% or 5% of those food samples contained at least one OP or pyrethroid insecticide, respectively. We measured a total of 11 OP insecticides, at levels ranging from 1 to 387 ng/g, and three pyrethroid insecticides, at levels ranging from 2 to 1,133 ng/g, in children’s food samples. We found that many of the food items consumed by the CPES children were also on the list of the most contaminated food commodities reported by the Environmental Working Group. Conclusions: The frequent consumption of food commodities with episodic presence of pesticide residues that are suspected to cause developmental and neurological effects in young children supports the need for further mitigation.

Moses' Beginning

Rehding, Alexander
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Music

Idea and Image in Schoenberg's Moses und Aron

Gyger, Elliott; Rehding, Alexander
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Music

Exporting the 'Pursuit of Happiness'

Alford, William P.
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
reviewing Thomas Carothers, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Aiding Democracy Abroad: The Learning Curve (1999)

OA is not just a technical question about how to finance journals or launch repositories: Interview with Peter Suber

Suber, Peter
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US

Deconstructing, Reconstructing, Preserving Paul E Meehl's Legacy of Construct Validity

Gottesman, Irving I.; Maher, Brendan Arnold
Fonte: American Psychological Association Publicador: American Psychological Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
The question of the status of cause-and-effect explanations of human behavior that posit physically existing causative factors and those that, on the other hand, posit hypothetical entities in the form of "useful fictions" has a long history. The influence of the works of Jeremy Bentham and Hans Vaihinger, as well as the later influence of Francis Galton, is described. Issues of the validity of hypothetical constructs and related problems of measurement and definition as found in psychoanalytic theory construction and in trait theory are examined. The significant and continuing interest generated by the landmark studies of K. MacCorquodale and P. E. Meehl (1948) and L. J. Cronbach and P. E. Meehl (1955) as well as the central importance of P. E. Meehl's thinking are described.; Psychology

Good-Bye Lenin (Or Not?): The Effect of Communism on People's Preferences

Fuchs-Schundeln, Nicola; Alesina, Alberto
Fonte: American Economic Association Publicador: American Economic Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Preferences for redistribution, as well as the generosity of welfare states, differ significantly across countries. This paper tests whether there exists a feedback process of the economic regime on individual preferences. We exploit the experiment of German separation and reunification to establish exogeneity of the economic system. We find that, after German reunification, East Germans are more in favor of state intervention than West Germans. This effect is especially strong for older cohorts. We further find that East Germans' preferences converge toward those of West Germans. It will take one to two generations for preferences to converge completely.; Economics

Kant's Formula of Universal Law

Korsgaard, Christine
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Publicador: Blackwell Publishing
EN_US
Philosophy

Responses to O'Brien and Shoemaker

Moran, Richard
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Publicador: Blackwell Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Philosophy

Toward an Objective Characterization of an Anhedonic Phenotype: A Signal-Detection Approach

Pizzagalli, Diego; O'Shea, James P.; Jahn, Allison L.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
EN_US
Background: Difficulties in defining and characterizing phenotypes has hindered progress in psychiatric genetics and clinical neuroscience. Decreased approach-related behavior and anhedonia (lack of responsiveness to pleasure) are considered cardinal features of depression, but few studies have used laboratory-based measures to objectively characterize these constructs. Methods: To assess hedonic capacity in relation to depressive, particularly anhedonic, symptoms, 62 participants completed a signal-detection task based on a differential reinforcement schedule. Anhedonia was operationalized as decreased reward responsiveness. Results: Unequal frequency of reward between two correct responses produced a response bias (i.e., a systematic preference to identify the stimulus paired with the more frequent reward). Subjects with elevated depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory scores ≥ 16) failed to show a response bias. Impaired reward responsiveness predicted higher anhedonic symptoms 1 month later, after controlling for general negative affectivity. Conclusions: Impaired tendency to modulate behavior as a function of prior reinforcement might underline diminished hedonic capacity in depression. When applied to a clinical population...

Sharing Experiences to Learn User Characteristics in Dynamic Environments with Sparse Data

Sarne, David; Grosz, Barbara
Fonte: Association for Computing Machinery Publicador: Association for Computing Machinery
This paper investigates the problem of estimating the value of probabilistic parameters needed for decision making in environments in which an agent, operating within a multi-agent system, has no a priori information about the structure of the distribution of parameter values. The agent must be able to produce estimations even when it may have made only a small number of direct observations, and thus it must be able to operate with sparse data. The paper describes a mechanism that enables the agent to significantly improve its estimation by augmenting its direct observations with those obtained by other agents with which it is coordinating. To avoid undesirable bias in relatively heterogeneous environments while effectively using relevant data to improve its estimations, the mechanism weighs the contributions of other agents' observations based on a real-time estimation of the level of similarity between each of these agents and itself. The "coordination autonomy" module of a coordination-manager system provided an empirical setting for evaluation. Simulation-based evaluations demonstrated that the proposed mechanism outperforms estimations based exclusively on an agent's own observations as well as estimations based on an unweighted aggregate of all other agents' observations.; Engineering and Applied Sciences

SSDPOP: Improving the Privacy of DCOP with Secret Sharing

Greenstadt, Rachel; Smith, Michael; Grosz, Barbara
Fonte: Association for Computing Machinery Publicador: Association for Computing Machinery
Tipo: Conference Paper
Multi-agent systems designed to work collaboratively with groups of people typically require private information that people will entrust to them only if they have assurance that this information will be protected. Although Distributed Constraint Optimization (DCOP) has emerged as a prominent technique for multiagent coordination, existing algorithms for solving DCOP problems do not adeqately protect agents' privacy. This paper analyzes privacy protection and loss in existing DCOP algorithms. It presents a new algorithm, SSDPOP, which augments a prominent DCOP algorithm (DPOP) with secret sharing techniques. This approach significantly reduces privacy loss, while preserving the structure of the DPOP algorithm and introducing only minimal computational overhead. Results show that SSDPOP reduces privacy loss by 29–88% on average over DPOP.; Engineering and Applied Sciences

Subjects of Triumph and Literary History: Dido and Petrarch in Petrarch's Africa and Trionfi

Simpson, William
Fonte: Duke University Press Publicador: Duke University Press
EN_US
English and American Literature and Language

Financial Markets’ Behavior Around Episodes of Large Changes in the Fiscal Stance

Ardagna, Silvia
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Using a panel of OECD countries from 1960 to 2002, this paper shows that interest rates, particularly those of long-term government bonds, decrease when countries’ fiscal position improves and increase around periods of budget deteriorations. Stock market prices surge around times of substantial fiscal tightening and plunge in periods of very loose fiscal policy. In addition, the paper shows that results depend on countries’ initial fiscal conditions and on the type of fiscal consolidations: Fiscal adjustments that occur in country-years with high levels of government deficit, that are implemented by cutting government spending, and that generate a permanent and substantial decrease in government debt are associated with larger reductions in interest rates and increases in stock market prices.; Economics

Natural Killer Cells in Obesity: Impaired Function and Increased Susceptibility to the Effects of Cigarette Smoke

Cawood, Tom J.; O'Farrelly, Cliona; Zimmer, Jacques; O'Shea, Donal; Lynch, Lydia
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Background: Obese individuals who smoke have a 14 year reduction in life expectancy. Both obesity and smoking are independantly associated with increased risk of malignancy. Natural killer cells (NK) are critical mediators of anti-tumour immunity and are compromised in obese patients and smokers. We examined whether NK cell function was differentially affected by cigarette smoke in obese and lean subjects. Methodology and Principal Findings: Clinical data and blood were collected from 40 severely obese subjects (BMI>40 kg/m2) and 20 lean healthy subjects. NK cell levels and function were assessed using flow cytometry and cytotoxicity assays. The effect of cigarette smoke on NK cell ability to kill K562 tumour cells was assessed in the presence or absence of the adipokines leptin and adiponectin. NK cell levels were significantly decreased in obese subjects compared to lean controls (7.6 vs 16.6%, p = 0.0008). NK function was also significantly compromised in obese patients (30% +/− 13% vs 42% +/−12%, p = 0.04). Cigarette smoke inhibited NK cell ability to kill tumour cell lines (p<0.0001). NK cells from obese subjects were even more susceptible to the inhibitory effects of smoke compared to lean subjects (33% vs 28%, p = 0.01). Cigarette smoke prevented NK cell activation...

Altered intrinsic functional coupling between core neurocognitive networks in Parkinson's disease

Putcha, Deepti; Ross, Robert S.; Cronin-Golomb, Alice; Janes, Amy C.; Stern, Chantal E.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Parkinson's disease (PD) is largely attributed to disruptions in the nigrostriatal dopamine system. These neurodegenerative changes may also have a more global effect on intrinsic brain organization at the cortical level. Functional brain connectivity between neurocognitive systems related to cognitive processing is critical for effective neural communication, and is disrupted across neurological disorders. Three core neurocognitive networks have been established as playing a critical role in the pathophysiology of many neurological disorders: the default-mode network (DMN), the salience network (SN), and the central executive network (CEN). In healthy adults, DMN–CEN interactions are anti-correlated while SN–CEN interactions are strongly positively correlated even at rest, when individuals are not engaging in any task. These intrinsic between-network interactions at rest are necessary for efficient suppression of the DMN and activation of the CEN during a range of cognitive tasks. To identify whether these network interactions are disrupted in individuals with PD, we used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) to compare between-network connectivity between 24 PD participants and 20 age-matched controls (MC). In comparison to the MC...