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Neuroscience in Middle Schools: A Professional Development and Resource Program That Models Inquiry-based Strategies and Engages Teachers in Classroom Implementation

MacNabb, Carrie; Schmitt, Lee; Michlin, Michael; Harris, Ilene; Thomas, Larry; Chittendon, David; Ebner, Timothy J.; Dubinsky, Janet M.
Fonte: American Society for Cell Biology Publicador: American Society for Cell Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 EN
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The Department of Neuroscience at the University of Minnesota and the Science Museum of Minnesota have developed and implemented a successful program for middle school (grades 5–8) science teachers and their students, called Brain Science on the Move. The overall goals have been to bring neuroscience education to underserved schools, excite students about science, improve their understanding of neuroscience, and foster partnerships between scientists and educators. The program includes BrainU, a teacher professional development institute; Explain Your Brain Assembly and Exhibit Stations, multimedia large-group presentation and hands-on activities designed to stimulate student thinking about the brain; Class Activities, in-depth inquiry-based investigations; and Brain Trunks, materials and resources related to class activities. Formal evaluation of the program indicated that teacher neuroscience knowledge, self-confidence, and use of inquiry-based strategies and neuroscience in their classrooms have increased. Participating teachers increased the time spent teaching neuroscience and devoted more time to “inquiry-based” teaching versus “lecture-based teaching.” Teachers appreciated in-depth discussions of pedagogy and science and opportunities for collegial interactions with world-class researchers. Student interest in the brain and in science increased. Since attending BrainU...

The Neuroscience Nursing 2005 Role Delineation Study: Implications for Certification

Villanueva, Nancy E.; Thompson, Hilaire J.; Macpherson, Brekk C.; Meunier, Kathleen E.; Hilton, Edith
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2006 EN
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A task force appointed by the American Board of Neuroscience Nursing conducted a role delineation study to define current practice in neuroscience nursing. The results were used to validate the content matrix for future Certified Neuroscience Registered Nurse (CNRN) examinations. The study employed a survey design for which the Nursing Intervention Classification taxonomy was the guiding theoretical framework. The eligible sample include all current CNRNs and all members of the American Association of Neuroscience Nursing. An invitation to participate in an online survey was successfully emailed to 2,462 neuroscience nurses; the survey was completed by 477 respondents. They rated the performance and importance of 175 neuroscience nursing activities. On the basis of data analysis conducted by Schroeder Measurement Technologies, Inc., the task force recommended revisions to the CNRN examination matrix to reflect current practice in neuroscience nursing.

The Neuroscience Information Framework: A Data and Knowledge Environment for Neuroscience

Gardner, Daniel; Akil, Huda; Ascoli, Giorgio A.; Bowden, Douglas M.; Bug, William; Donohue, Duncan E.; Goldberg, David H.; Grafstein, Bernice; Grethe, Jeffrey S.; Gupta, Amarnath; Halavi, Maryam; Kennedy, David N.; Marenco, Luis; Martone, Maryann E.; Mill
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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With support from the Institutes and Centers forming the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research, we have designed and implemented a new initiative for integrating access to and use of Web-based neuroscience resources: the Neuroscience Information Framework. The Framework arises from the expressed need of the neuroscience community for neuroinformatic tools and resources to aid scientific inquiry, builds upon prior development of neuroinformatics by the Human Brain Project and others, and directly derives from the Society for Neuroscience’s Neuroscience Database Gateway. Partnered with the Society, its Neuroinformatics Committee, and volunteer consultant-collaborators, our multi-site consortium has developed: (1) a comprehensive, dynamic, inventory of Web-accessible neuroscience resources, (2) an extended and integrated terminology describing resources and contents, and (3) a framework accepting and aiding concept-based queries. Evolving instantiations of the Framework may be viewed at http://nif.nih.gov, http://neurogateway.org, and other sites as they come on line.

The NIFSTD and BIRNLex Vocabularies: Building Comprehensive Ontologies for Neuroscience

Bug, William J.; Ascoli, Giorgio A.; Grethe, Jeffrey S.; Gupta, Amarnath; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Laird, Angela R.; Larson, Stephen D.; Rubin, Daniel; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Turner, Jessica A.; Martone, Maryann E.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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A critical component of the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) project is a consistent, flexible terminology for describing and retrieving neuroscience-relevant resources. Although the original NIF specification called for a loosely structured controlled vocabulary for describing neuroscience resources, as the NIF system evolved, the requirement for a formally structured ontology for neuroscience with sufficient granularity to describe and access a diverse collection of information became obvious. This requirement led to the NIF standardized (NIFSTD) ontology, a comprehensive collection of common neuroscience domain terminologies woven into an ontologically consistent, unified representation of the biomedical domains typically used to describe neuroscience data (e.g., anatomy, cell types, techniques), as well as digital resources (tools, databases) being created throughout the neuroscience community. NIFSTD builds upon a structure established by the BIRNLex, a lexicon of concepts covering clinical neuroimaging research developed by the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN) project. Each distinct domain module is represented using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). As much as has been practical, NIFSTD reuses existing community ontologies that cover the required biomedical domains...

The Seductive Allure of Neuroscience Explanations

Weisberg, Deena Skolnick; Keil, Frank C.; Goodstein, Joshua; Rawson, Elizabeth; Gray, Jeremy R.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2008 EN
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Explanations of psychological phenomena seem to generate more public interest when they contain neuroscientific information. Even irrelevant neuroscience information in an explanation of a psychological phenomenon may interfere with people’s abilities to critically consider the underlying logic of this explanation. We tested this hypothesis by giving naïve adults, students in a neuroscience course, and neuroscience experts brief descriptions of psychological phenomena followed by one of four types of explanation, according to a 2 (good explanation vs. bad explanation) × 2 (without neuroscience vs. with neuroscience) design. Crucially, the neuroscience information was irrelevant to the logic of the explanation, as confirmed by the expert subjects. Subjects in all three groups judged good explanations as more satisfying than bad ones. But subjects in the two nonexpert groups additionally judged that explanations with logically irrelevant neuroscience information were more satisfying than explanations without. The neuroscience information had a particularly striking effect on nonexperts’ judgments of bad explanations, masking otherwise salient problems in these explanations.

Details for Manuscript Number: SSM-D-09-00651 R2 “Contemporary neuroscience in the media”

Racine, Eric; Waldman, Sarah; Rosenberg, Jarett; Illes, Judy
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Technological innovations in neuroscience have opened new windows to the understanding of brain function and the neuronal underpinnings of brain activity in neuropsychiatric disorders and social behavior. Public interest and support for neuroscience research through initiatives like the Decade of the Brain project and increasingly diverse brain-related initiatives have created new interfaces between neuroscience and society. Against this backdrop of dynamic innovation, we set out to examine how different features of neuroscience are depicted in print media. We used the ‘guided news’ function of the LexisNexis Academic database with keyword searches to find news articles published between 1995 and 2004 in major U.S. and U.K. English-language news sources. We performed searches on headlines, lead paragraphs, and body terms to maximize search yields. All articles were coded for overall tone of coverage, details on reported studies, presence of ethical, legal, and social discussion as well as the emerging interpretations of neuroscience – in the form of neuro-essentialism, neuro-realism, and neuro-policy. We found that print media coverage of the use of neurotechnology for diagnosis or therapy in neuropsychiatric disorders was generally optimistic. We also found that...

Games people play—toward an enactive view of cooperation in social neuroscience

Engemann, Denis A.; Bzdok, Danilo; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Vogeley, Kai; Schilbach, Leonhard
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/06/2012 EN
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The field of social neuroscience has made considerable progress in unraveling the neural correlates of human cooperation by making use of brain imaging methods. Within this field, neuroeconomic research has drawn on paradigms from experimental economics, such as the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) and the Trust Game. These paradigms capture the topic of conflict in cooperation, while focusing strongly on outcome-related decision processes. Cooperation, however, does not equate with that perspective, but relies on additional psychological processes and events, including shared intentions and mutually coordinated joint action. These additional facets of cooperation have been successfully addressed by research in developmental psychology, cognitive science, and social philosophy. Corresponding neuroimaging data, however, is still sparse. Therefore, in this paper, we present a juxtaposition of these mutually related but mostly independent trends in cooperation research. We propose that the neuroscientific study of cooperation could benefit from paradigms and concepts employed in developmental psychology and social philosophy. Bringing both to a neuroimaging environment might allow studying the neural correlates of cooperation by using formal models of decision-making as well as capturing the neural responses that underlie joint action scenarios...

Plastic neuroscience: studying what the brain cares about

Dumit, Joseph
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/04/2014 EN
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Drawing on Allan Newell's “You can't play 20 questions with nature and win,” this article proposes that neuroscience needs to go beyond binary hypothesis testing and design experiments that follow what neurons care about. Examples from Lettvin et. al. are used to demonstrate that one can experimentally play with neurons and generate surprising results. In this manner, brains are not confused with persons, rather, persons are understood to do things with their brains.

Explicit and implicit issues in the developmental cognitive neuroscience of social inequality

D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Lipina, Sebastian J.; Olesinska, Alice
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/09/2012 EN
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The appearance of developmental cognitive neuroscience (DCN) in the socioeconomic status (SES) research arena is hugely transformative, but challenging. We review challenges rooted in the implicit and explicit assumptions informing this newborn field. We provide balanced theoretical alternatives on how hypothesized psychological processes map onto the brain (e.g., problem of localization) and how experimental phenomena at multiple levels of analysis (e.g., behavior, cognition and the brain) could be related. We therefore examine unclear issues regarding the existing perspectives on poverty and their relationships with low SES, the evidence of low-SES adaptive functioning, historical precedents of the “alternate pathways” (neuroplasticity) interpretation of learning disabilities related to low-SES and the notion of deficit, issues of “normativity” and validity in findings of neurocognitive differences between children from different SES, and finally alternative interpretations of the complex relationship between IQ and SES. Particularly, we examine the extent to which the available laboratory results may be interpreted as showing that cognitive performance in low-SES children reflects cognitive and behavioral deficits as a result of growing up in specific environmental or cultural contexts...

Education and Neuroscience: An Incompatible Relationship

Cuthbert, Alka Sehgal
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
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This is the accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Wiley at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/soc4.12233/abstract.; To date there has been little opposition to the growing influence of cognitive neuroscience in education from the education profession itself. However there is growing criticism from the fields of psychology and philosophy. This paper aims to summarize the central arguments found in literature critical of the claims made by cognitive neuroscientists who advocate its potential to improve education. The paper is organised around three sections which draw together assessments from psychology, philosophy and sociology of education. The first, ?Brain, Mind and Culture?, lays out the general argument against neuro ? education and evaluates two common assumptions made by advocates of neuro-education: that there is a causal relationship between brain and mind; and that learning is a central tenet of education. The second section, ?Promises and Problems?, critically considers an example of neuro-educational research, and then goes on to discuss how neuro-education has detrimental consequences for two necessary conditions of liberal subject based education; disciplinarity and pedagogic authority. The final section...

Minimum Information about a Neuroscience Investigation (MINI) Electrophysiology

Frank Gibson; Paul G. Overton; Tom V. Smulders; Simon R. Schultz; Stephen J. Eglen; Colin D. Ingram; Stefano Panzeri; Phil Bream; Evelyne Sernagor; Mark Cunningham; Christopher Adams; Christoph Echtermeyer; Jennifer Simonotto; Marcus Kaiser; Daniel C.
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
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This module represents the formalized opinion of the authors and the CARMEN consortium, which identifies the minimum information required to report the use of electrophysiology in a neuroscience study, for submission to the CARMEN system (www.carmen.org.uk).

1st INCF Workshop on Global Portal Services for Neuroscience

Jaap van Pelt; Gordon Shepherd
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
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The goal of this meeting was to map out existing portal services for neuroscience, identify their features and future plans, and outline opportunities for synergistic developments. The workshop discussed alternative formats of future global and integrated portal services.

1st INCF Workshop on Sustainability of Neuroscience Databases

Jack Van Horn; Jaap van Pelt
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
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The goal of the workshop was to discuss issues related to the sustainability of neuroscience databases, identify problems and propose solutions, and formulate recommendations to the INCF. The report summarizes the discussions of invited participants from the neuroinformatics community as well as from other disciplines where sustainability issues have already been approached. The recommendations for the INCF involve rating, ranking, and supporting database sustainability.

Minimum Information about a Neuroscience Investigation (MINI): Electrophysiology

Frank Gibson; Paul G. Overton; Tom V. Smulders; Simon R. Schultz; Stephen J. Eglen; Colin D. Ingram; Stefano Panzeri; Phil Bream; Miles Whittington; Evelyne Sernagor; Mark Cunningham; Christopher Adams; Christoph Echtermeyer; Jennifer Simonotto; Marcus Ka
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
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341.5987%
This module represents the formalised opinion of the authors and the CARMEN consortium, which identifies the minimum information required to report the use of electrophysiology in a neuroscience study, for submission to the CARMEN system ("http://www.carmen.org.uk":www.carmen.org.uk).

Neuroscience and eating disorders: the role of the medial temporal lobe

Giuseppe Riva
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
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Evidence from psychology and neuroscience indicates that our spatial experience, including the bodily one, involves the integration of different sensory inputs within two different reference frames egocentric (body as reference of first-person experience) and allocentric (body as object in the physical world). Even if functional relations between these two frames are usually limited, they influence each other during the interaction between long- and short-term memory processes in spatial cognition. If, for some reasons, this process is impaired, the egocentric sensory inputs are no more able to update the contents of the allocentric representation of the body: the subject is locked to it. In our perspective, subjects with eating disorders are locked to an allocentric representation of their body, stored in long-term memory. A significant role in the locking may be played by the medial temporal lobe, and in particular by the connection between the hippocampal complex and amygdala.

Is the new cognitive neuroscience of social inequality equal? Deconstructing the current neurocognitive research on children’s attention

Amedeo D'Angiulli; Pavel Grebenkov
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Poster
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The relation between socioeconomic status (SES) and various outcomes, such as cognitive ability, behavior, social skills and health, has been studied for over half a century. The general consensus in interpreting the results as been that low SES is necessarily associated with cognitive and/or behavioral pathologies or deficits. Contrary to this deficit hypothesis new evidence suggests that the differences between low- and high-SES populations may be due to cognitive preferences associated with the social context where children develop. Much of this evidence has come from developmental neuroimaging studies on attention and executive control generally showing that despite differences between low- and high-SES children in neural correlates, there are no behavioral differences. Still, from within the new cognitive neuroscience of social inequality the observed differences are used to argue that low-SES children have neurocognitive impairments needing intervention/remediation. Other current research shows that low SES is associated with elevated levels of stress, and that elevated levels of stress or treatments with stress-related neuropeptides can alter certain aspects of attention. Thus, variations in attention across different SES backgrounds may be mediated by environmental stress. We review critically the connections among SES...

Types, models and instances: a perspective from neuroscience

Robert C. Cannon
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
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In order to share neuroscience models effectively, there is a need to clearly separate out the structure, equations and parameters so that each model only specifies those bits that are unique to itself. This will enable specialized simulation tools to recognize structures they can handle without having to process the equations directly. Two projects, NeuroML2 and NineML are working in this direction. As an example, we show how the Hodgkin Huxley equations can be decomposed into separate component type definitions and parameter sets in such as way that the majority of Hodgkin-Huxley style ion channel models can be expressed in only a few lines.

Philosophy and neuroscience: between certainties and doubts; Filosofia e neurociência: entre certezas e dúvidas

Zimmermann, Ana Cristina; Torriani-Pasin, Camila
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Educação Física e Esporte Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Educação Física e Esporte
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2011 POR
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Quando tentamos pensar o movimento humano, esse corpo vivo em relação com o mundo, por meio de conceitos restritos a uma única área, constata-se a complexidade deste fenômeno, que se mostra a cada novo movimento da ciência. Considerando esta complexidade, retomamos neste ensaio a possibilidade de diálogo entre Filosofia e Ciência, aqui ocupadas com os estudos sobre corpo e movimento humano. Recorremos, então, ao estranhamento entre Neurociência e Filosofia, em especial a Fenomenologia de Merleau-Ponty, por meio de exemplos clínicos e reflexões, não no sentido de buscar um sistema de explicações, forçar uma aproximação ou apontar elementos para fins de hierarquização, mas com o intuito de extrair deste movimento os elementos que nos ajudem a pensar nossas certezas e dúvidas acerca do movimento humano. A Filosofia nos auxilia, inicialmente, a indagar sobre os pressupostos e consequências das pesquisas, recolocando questões e restaurando o lugar da dúvida. A Ciência, por sua vez, abre campos, aguça curiosidades, e mesmo sem admiti-lo, deixa-se questionar. A separação entre as diferentes formas de pensar a realidade e produzir conhecimentos não precisa necessariamente ser combatida, às custas do enfraquecimento de ambas...

ENSN launch, London, November 2007. Neuroscience and society: a multidendritic neuron

Abi-Rached, Joelle M.
Fonte: BIOS Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: BIOS Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2007 EN; EN
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This report is a synoptic review of the proceedings of the European Neuroscience and Society Network (ENSN) launch. ENSN, is a European forum that discusses the social, political, economic, and ethical implications of the brain sciences from a multidisciplinary approach. Since it is the leading European forum of its kind, it is worthwhile reflecting on the various debates raised by the experts convened from different academic and professional backgrounds. In the first part of the report, I recapitulate the plenary lectures and workshops and intercalate them with a few thoughts and analyses. The second part is a systematic analysis of the different key themes, issues, and challenges raised and debated during the two-day conference. This could constitute an epistemic framework for further investigation of the impact and implications of the main controversial claims and new concepts that are emerging amidst unprecedented developments in the fastest growing scientific field of the past and present century. I conclude by underlining the importance of such a network of scientists and social scientists in examining the emerging fields of the ‘new brain sciences’.

Neuroscience and the risks of maltreatment

Munro, Eileen; Musholt, Kristina
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2014 EN; EN
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Findings from neuroimaging are increasingly being cited in policy debates to strengthen the case for early identification of, and intervention with, children at risk of maltreatment and poor outcomes. While agreeing that neuroscientific research into the risks of maltreatment is a very valuable and exciting area of study, this article challenges the confidence with which these findings are used in policy discussions. It critically discusses the reliability and validity of the relevant findings and the contribution they can currently make to our understanding of the causes and consequences of maltreatment. In addition, it is argued that this type of evidence, which is new in policy debates, is often being used in ways that are problematic. Many participants in the relevant policy debates seem to subscribe either to an implicit version of dualism about the relationship between the mind and the body, or to reductionism - the view that the mental can be reduced to the physical. Such assumptions threaten the way we think about human agency and moral responsibility but it is argued that they are misguided for conceptual reasons. It is concluded that neuroscience has the potential to contribute to our understanding of the causes and effects of maltreatment but cannot do so in isolation from the social sciences.