Últimos itens adicionados do Acervo: Harvard University

A Universidade de Harvard (em inglês: Harvard University) é uma universidade privada membro da Ivy League, localizada em Cambridge, Massachusetts, Estados Unidos, e cuja história, influência e riqueza tornam-a uma das mais prestigiadas universidades do mundo.

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Design and Evaluation of a Compiler for Embedded Stream Programs

Newton, Ryan R.; Girod, Lewis D.; Craig, Michael B.; Madden, Samuel R.; Morrisett, John Gregory
Fonte: Association for Computing Machinery Publicador: Association for Computing Machinery
Tipo: Conference Paper
EN_US
Applications that combine live data streams with embedded, parallel, and distributed processing are becoming more commonplace. WaveScript is a domain-specific language that brings high-level, type-safe, garbage-collected programming to these domains. This is made possible by three primary implementation techniques, each of which leverages characteristics of the streaming domain. First, we employ a novel evaluation strategy that uses a combination of interpretation and reification to partially evaluate programs into stream dataflow graphs. Second, we use profile-driven compilation to enable many optimizations that are normally only available in the synchronous (rather than asynchronous) dataflow domain. Finally, we incorporate an extensible system for rewrite rules to capture algebraic properties in specific domains (such as signal processing). We have used our language to build and deploy a sensornetwork for the acoustic localization of wild animals, in particular, the Yellow-Bellied marmot. We evaluate WaveScript's performance on this application, showing that it yields good performance on both embedded and desktop-class machines, including distributed execution and substantial parallel speedups. Our language allowed us to implement the application rapidly...

Some Forms of 'go' in Germanic

Jasanoff, Jay H.
Fonte: Harvard University Dept. of Linguistics Publicador: Harvard University Dept. of Linguistics
Tipo: Research Paper or Report
EN_US
Linguistics

Performance on Indirect Measures of Race Evaluation Predicts Amygdala Activation

Phelps, Elizabeth A.; O'Connor, Kevin J.; Cunningham, William A.; Funayama, E. Sumie; Gatenby, J. Christopher; Gore, John C.; Banaji, Mahzarin R.
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
We used fMRI to explore the neural substrates involved in the unconscious evaluation of Black and White social groups. Specifically, we focused on the amygdala, a subcortical structure known to play a role in emotional learning and evaluation. In Experiment 1, White American subjects observed faces of unfamiliar Black and White males. The strength of amygdala activation to Black-versus-White faces was correlated with two indirect (unconscious) measures of race evaluation (Implicit Association Test [IAT] and potentiated startle), but not with the direct (conscious) expression of race attitudes. In Experiment 2, these patterns were not obtained when the stimulus faces belonged to familiar and positively regarded Black and White individuals. Together, these results suggest that amygdala and behavioral responses to Black-versus-White faces in White subjects reflect cultural evaluations of social groups modified by individual experience.; Psychology

Visual Representation in the Wild: How Rhesus Monkeys Parse Objects

Munakata, Yuko; Santos, Laurie R.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Hauser, Marc David; O'Reilly, Randall C.
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Visual object representation was studied in free-ranging rhesus monkeys. To facilitate comparison with humans, and to provide a new tool for neurophysiologists, we used a looking time procedure originally developed for studies of human infants. Monkeys' looking times were measured to displays with one or two distinct objects, separated or together, stationary or moving. Results indicate that rhesus monkeys used featural information to parse the displays into distinct objects, and they found events in which distinct objects moved together more novel or unnatural than events in which distinct objects moved separately. These findings show both common-alities and contrasts with those obtained from human infants. We discuss their implications for the development and neural mechanisms of higher-level vision.; Psychology

Epidemiologic Studies Assessing the Role of the Epstein-Barr Virus in Hodgkin's Disease

Mueller, Nancy Elsa
Fonte: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine Publicador: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
The hypothesis that an infection plays a role in the etiology of Hodgkin's disease (HD) is suggested by both its clinical and histologic features. Its bimodal age-incidence pattern also suggests an infectious process among younger persons. In economically advantaged populations, the first peak occurs among young adults, while in disadvantaged populations, it occurs among children at a much lower frequency. It appears that the age distribution of HD shadows that of susceptibility to common childhood infections, such as the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); furthermore, that risk of HD is increased among those susceptible to a relatively late infection, in parallel with infectious mononucleosis (IM), and it has been found that people who have had IM have about three times the expected rate of HD. Serologically, there is a consistent association between EBV and HD. As a group, patients have an altered antibody pattern against EBV which suggests chronic reactivation, both following and preceding diagnosis. This altered pattern is common to all age groups. Severity of infection may alter host control among younger people, while diminished cellular immunity with aging may allow similar reactivation among older persons. Whether the EBV plays a direct role or simply reflects the action of a more primary factor is unknown.

Measuring the Neighborhood Environment: Associations with Young Girls' Energy Intake and Expenditure in a Cross-Sectional Study

Gregorich, Steven E; Laraia, Barbara A; Kushi, Lawrence H; Yen, Irene H; Leung, Cindy
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Background: Neighborhood environments affect children's health outcomes. Observational methods used to assess neighborhoods can be categorized as indirect, intermediate, or direct. Direct methods, involving in-person audits of the neighborhoods conducted by trained observers, are recognized as an accurate representation of current neighborhood conditions. The authors investigated the associations of various neighborhood characteristics with young girls' diet and physical activity. Methods: This study is based on a subset of participants in the Cohort Study of Young Girls' Nutrition, Environment and Transitions (CYGNET). In-person street audits were conducted within 215 girls' residential neighborhoods using a modified St. Louis Audit Tool. From the street audit data, exploratory factor analysis revealed five neighborhood scales: "mixed residential and commercial," "food and retail," "recreation," "walkability," and "physical disorder." A Neighborhood Deprivation Index was also derived from census data. The authors investigated if the five neighborhood scales and the Neighborhood Deprivation Index were associated with quartiles of total energy intake and expenditure (metabolic equivalent (MET) hours/week) at baseline, and whether any of these associations were modified by race/ethnicity. Results: After adjustment for demographic characteristics...

'ONE HEALTH' and Parasitology

Kaplan, Bruce; Kahn, Laura H; Woodall, Jack; Monath, Thomas Patrick Charles
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US

Evidence-Based Annotation of the Malaria Parasite's Genome Using Comparative Expression Profiling

Zhou, Yingyao; Ramachandran, Vandana; Kumar, Kota Arun; Westenberger, Scott; Refour, Phillippe; Zhou, Bin; Li, Fengwu; Young, Jason A.; Chen, Kaisheng; Plouffe, David; Henson, Kerstin; Nussenzweig, Victor; Carlton, Jane; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Winzeler, Eliza
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
A fundamental problem in systems biology and whole genome sequence analysis is how to infer functions for the many uncharacterized proteins that are identified, whether they are conserved across organisms of different phyla or are phylum-specific. This problem is especially acute in pathogens, such as malaria parasites, where genetic and biochemical investigations are likely to be more difficult. Here we perform comparative expression analysis on Plasmodium parasite life cycle data derived from P. falciparum blood, sporozoite, zygote and ookinete stages, and P. yoelii mosquito oocyst and salivary gland sporozoites, blood and liver stages and show that type II fatty acid biosynthesis genes are upregulated in liver and insect stages relative to asexual blood stages. We also show that some universally uncharacterized genes with orthologs in Plasmodium species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans show coordinated transcription patterns in large collections of human and yeast expression data and that the function of the uncharacterized genes can sometimes be predicted based on the expression patterns across these diverse organisms. We also use a comprehensive and unbiased literature mining method to predict which uncharacterized parasite-specific genes are likely to have roles in processes such as gliding motility...

Why Prioritize When There Isn't Enough Money?

Wikler, Daniel I.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
In an informal address to the 4th International Conference on Priorities in Health (Oslo, 23 September 2002), Professor Jeffrey Sachs--Chairperson of the WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health--maintained that the real causes of the inability of the world's poorest people to receive help for the lethal diseases that burden them did not include the "usual suspects" (corruption, mismanagement, and wrong priorities). Rather, the root cause was argued to be an inherent lack of money, indicating that the burden of disease would be lifted only if rich countries gave more money to poor ones. Without taking exception to anything that Sachs said in his address, there nevertheless remain a number of justifications for efforts to improve priority setting in the face of severely shortages of resources, including the following three defenses: prioritization is needed if we are to know that prioritization is insufficient; prioritization is most important when there is little money; prioritization can itself increase resources.

Two Types of Neuter: Closest-Conjunct Agreement in the Presence of '5 and Ups'

Marusic, Lanko; Nevins, Andrew Ira
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Conference Paper
EN_US
Linguistics

Trees and the Dynamics of Polynomials

McMullen, Curtis T.; DeMarco, Laura G.
Fonte: Societe Mathematique de France Publicador: Societe Mathematique de France
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
In this paper we study branched coverings of metrized, simplicial trees F : T → T which arise from polynomial maps f : C → C with disconnected Julia sets. We show that the collection of all such trees, up to scale, forms a contractible space PTD compactifying the moduli space of polynomials of degree D; that F records the asymptotic behavior of the multipliers of f; and that any meromorphic family of polynomials over Δ* can be completed by a unique tree at its central fiber. In the cubic case we give a combinatorial enumeration of the trees that arise, and show that PT3 is itself a tree.; Mathematics

Dynamics on Blowups of the Projective Plane

McMullen, Curtis T.
Fonte: Springer Berlin / Heidelberg Publicador: Springer Berlin / Heidelberg
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Mathematics

*gwes-, *(z)gwes- or *(s)gwesh2-? The PIE root for 'extinguish/go out'

Jasanoff, Jay H.
Fonte: John Benjamins Publishing Publicador: John Benjamins Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Linguistics

Stative' *-e¯- Revisited

Jasanoff, Jay H.
Fonte: Harrassowitz Verlag Publicador: Harrassowitz Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Linguistics

The Origin of the Celtic Comparative Type OIr Tressa, MW Trech 'Stronger'

Jasanoff, Jay H.
Fonte: Harrassowitz Verlag Publicador: Harrassowitz Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Linguistics

Plus ça change. . .: Lachmann's Law in Latin

Jasanoff, Jay H.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Monograph or Book
EN_US
Linguistics

The Vedic Imperatives yódhi 'Fight' and bodhi 'Heed'

Jasanoff, Jay H.
Fonte: American Oriental Society Publicador: American Oriental Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Linguistics

The Impact of Japan's 2004 Postgraduate Training Program on Intra-Prefectural Distribution of Pediatricians in Japan

Sakai, Rie; Wang, Wei; Yamaguchi, Norihiro; Tamura, Hiroshi; Goto, Rei; Kawachi, Ichiro
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Objective: Inequity in physician distribution poses a challenge to many health systems. In Japan, a new postgraduate training program for all new medical graduates was introduced in 2004, and researchers have argued that this program has increased inequalities in physician distribution. We examined the trends in the geographic distribution of pediatricians as well as all physicians from 1996 to 2010 to identify the impact of the launch of the new training program. Methods: The Gini coefficient was calculated using municipalities as the study unit within each prefecture to assess whether there were significant changes in the intra-prefectural distribution of all physicians and pediatricians before and after the launch of the new training program. The effect of the new program was quantified by estimating the difference in the slope in the time trend of the Gini coefficients before and after 2004 using a linear change-point regression design. We categorized 47 prefectures in Japan into two groups: 1) predominantly urban and 2) others by the definition from OECD to conduct stratified analyses by urban-rural status. Results: The trends in physician distribution worsened after 2004 for all physicians (p value<.0001) and pediatricians (p value = 0.0057). For all physicians...

Backlash's Travel

Sunstein, Cass Robert
Fonte: Harvard University, Harvard Law School Publicador: Harvard University, Harvard Law School
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Sometimes the public greatly opposes the decisions of the Supreme Court; sometimes the Court seems to anticipate public backlash and even to respond to it when it occurs. Should a social planner want the Court to anticipate or to respond to backlash? No abstract answer is possible; the appropriate conclusion depends on assumptions about the capacities of courts and the capacities of those who engage in backlash. This point is demonstrated through an exploration of four imaginable worlds: Olympus, the Land of the Ancients, Lochnerland, and Athens. The four worlds reflect radically different assumptions about judicial and public capacities. The proper analysis of backlash depends, in large part, on the prevailing theory of constitutional interpretation, and on whether judges have privileged access to constitutional meaning. If judges lack such access, backlash is a healthy part of dialogue between judges and the public, and the judiciary should sometimes yield. If our world is Olympus, the argument for attention to backlash is severely weakened.

A New Progressivism

Sunstein, Cass Robert
Fonte: Stanford Law School Publicador: Stanford Law School
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Based on an address for a conference on Law and Transformation in South Africa, this paper explores problems with two twentieth-century approaches to government: the way of markets and the way of planning. It urges that the New Progressivism simultaneously offers (1) a distinctive conception of government's appropriate means, an outgrowth of the late-twentieth-century critique of economic planning, and (2) a distinctive understanding of government's appropriate ends, an outgrowth of evident failures with market arrangements and largely a product of the mid-twentieth-century critique of laissez faire. It emphasizes the need to replace bans and commands with appropriate incentives, and to attend to social norms and social meanings in leading human behavior in welfare-promoting directions. The ultimate goal is to promote some of the goals associated with America's New Deal and Europe's social democracy, but without using the crude, inflexible, and often counterproductive methods associated with those approaches. Some attention is devoted to the effects of globalization, the AIDS crisis, crime prevention, and the role of economic growth.