Página 13 dos resultados de 24127 itens digitais encontrados em 0.008 segundos

Nanotubos de carbono aplicados às neurociências: perspectivas e desafios; Carbon nanotubes applied in neuroscience: prospects and challenges

OLIVEIRA, Virginia; PEREIRA, Michele Munk; BRANDÃO, Humberto de Mello; BRANDÃO, Marcos Antônio Fernandes; GATTAZ, Wagner Farid; RAPOSO, Nádia Rezende Barbosa
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
246.96629%
INTRODUÇÃO: Os nanotubos de carbono (NTCs) são os nanomateriais mais promissores para aplicação terapêutica em doenças neurodegenerativas. Aplicações potenciais incluem sistemas de liberação controlada de fármacos, interfaces elétricas e substratos para crescimento celular. OBJETIVO: Descrever o estado da arte e as perspectivas e desafios da aplicação dos NTCs nas neurociências. MÉTODO: Procedeu-se a uma busca sistemática nos indexadores Medline, Lilacs e SciELO, utilizando os descritores "carbon nanotubes", "drug delivery", "electrical interface", "tissue regeneration", "neuroscience", "biocompatibility" e "nanotechnology", devidamente agrupados. RESULTADOS: A revisão da literatura evidenciou controvérsias nos estudos relativos à biocompatibilidade dos NTCs, embora tenha ratificado o seu potencial para a neuromedicina e neurociências. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados obtidos apontam a necessidade de estudos padronizados sobre as aplicações e interações dessas nanoestruturas com os sistemas biológicos.; BACKGROUND: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are the most promising nanomaterials for therapeutic application in neurodegenerative diseases. Potential applications include systems for controlled drug delivery, electrical interfaces and substrates for cell growth. OBJECTIVE: To describe the state of art...

Concepção histórico-cultural do cérebro na obra de Vigotski; Brain historical-cultural conception in Vygotskys work

Silva, Claudia Lopes da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/04/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
246.96629%
Esta tese procura identificar o conceito de cérebro na obra de Vigotski, analisando como este conceito relaciona-se com os fundamentos da psicologia histórico-cultural. A partir disso, discute possíveis implicações desse conceito para a educação, face a um cenário educacional onde as relações entre neurociência e educação recebem atenção crescente de ambos os campos. Trata-se de um trabalho teórico, baseado na produção teórica de Vigotski realizada no período de 1924 a 1934, ano de sua morte. Entre as dezenas de obras conhecidas do psicólogo bielorrusso, foram selecionados e analisados vinte textos nos quais o tema cérebro é abordado de forma mais particularizada. A partir dessa análise, pôde-se concluir que as teorias de Vigotski sobre o cérebro estão intrinsecamente relacionadas com os fundamentos da psicologia histórico-cultural. A abordagem vigotskiana do cérebro se deu de forma densa e inovadora, considerando o que se conhece atualmente a partir das descobertas da neurociência. Entre estas ideias, pode-se destacar a constituição da consciência a partir da internalização da experiência social, o funcionamento cerebral através de sistemas funcionais em oposição à visão localizacionista, os sinais como conexões extra-cerebrais de origem cultural e a defesa do monismo psicofísico...

The relations between neuroscience and human behavioral science.

Strumwasser, F
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1994 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
246.96629%
Neuroscience seeks to understand how the human brain, perhaps the most complex electrochemical machine in the universe, works, in terms of molecules, membranes, cells and cell assemblies, development, plasticity, learning, memory, cognition, and behavior. The human behavioral sciences, in particular psychiatry and clinical psychology, deal with disorders of human behavior and mentation. The gap between neuroscience and the human behavioral sciences is still large. However, some major advances in neuroscience over the last two decades have diminished the span. This article reviews the major advances of neuroscience in six areas with relevance to the behavioral sciences: (a) evolution of the nervous system; (b) visualizing activity in the human brain; (c) plasticity of the cerebral cortex; (d) receptors, ion channels, and second/third messengers; (e) molecular genetic approaches; and (f) understanding integrative systems with networks and circadian clocks as examples.

First-Person Neuroscience: A new methodological approach for linking mental and neuronal states

Northoff, Georg; Heinzel, Alexander
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/03/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
246.96629%
Though the brain and its neuronal states have been investigated extensively, the neural correlates of mental states remain to be determined. Since mental states are experienced in first-person perspective and neuronal states are observed in third-person perspective, a special method must be developed for linking both states and their respective perspectives. We suggest that such method is provided by First-Person Neuroscience. What is First-Person Neuroscience? We define First-Person Neuroscience as investigation of neuronal states under guidance of and on orientation to mental states. An empirical example of such methodological approach is demonstrated by an fMRI study on emotions. It is shown that third- and first-person analysis of data yield different results. First-person analysis reveals neural activity in cortical midline structures during subjective emotional experience. Based on these and other results neural processing in cortical midline structures is hypothesized to be crucially involved in generating mental states. Such direct linkage between first- and third-person approaches to analysis of neural data allows insight into the "point of view from within the brain", that is what we call the First-Brain Perspective. In conclusion...

Fever Management Practices of Neuroscience Nurses: National and Regional Perspectives

Thompson, Hilaire J.; Kirkness, Catherine J.; Mitchell, Pamela H.; Webb, Deborah J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
246.96629%
Neuroscience patients with fever may have worse outcomes than those who are afebrile. However, neuroscience nurses who encounter this common problem face a translational gap between patient-outcomes research and bedside practice because there is no current evidence-based standard of care for fever management of the neurologically vulnerable patient. The aim of this study was to determine if there are trends in national practices for fever and hyperthermia management of the neurologically vulnerable patient. A 15-item mailed questionnaire was used to determine national and regional trends in fever and hyperthermia management and decision making by neuroscience nurses. Members of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses were surveyed (N = 1,225) and returned 328 usable surveys. Fewer than 20% of respondents reported having an explicit fever management protocol in place for neurologic patients, and 12.5% reported having a nonspecific patient protocol available for fever management. Several clear and consistent patterns in interventions for fever and hyperthermia management were seen nationally, including acetaminophen administration at a dose of 650 mg every 4 hours, ice packs, water cooling blankets, and tepid bathing. However...

NeuroMorpho.Org implementation of digital neuroscience: dense coverage and integration with the NIF

Halavi, Maryam; Polavaram, Sridevi; Donohue, Duncan E.; Hamilton, Gail; Hoyt, Jeffrey; Smith, Kenneth P.; Ascoli, Giorgio A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
246.96629%
Neuronal morphology affects network connectivity, plasticity, and information processing. Uncovering the design principles and functional consequences of dendritic and axonal shape necessitates quantitative analysis and computational modeling of detailed experimental data. Digital reconstructions provide the required neuromorphological descriptions in a parsimonious, comprehensive, and reliable numerical format. NeuroMorpho.Org is the largest web-accessible repository service for digitally reconstructed neurons and one of the integrated resources in the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF). Here we describe the NeuroMorpho.Org approach as an exemplary experience in designing, creating, populating, and curating a neuroscience digital resource. The simple three-tier architecture of NeuroMorpho.Org (web client, web server, and relational database) encompasses all necessary elements to support a large-scale, integrate-able repository. The data content, while heterogeneous in scientific scope and experimental origin, is unified in format and presentation by an in house standardization protocol. The server application (MRALD) is secure, customizable, and developer-friendly. Centralized processing and expert annotation yields a comprehensive set of metadata that enriches and complements the raw data. The thoroughly tested interface design allows for optimal and effective data search and retrieval. Availability of data in both original and standardized formats ensures compatibility with existing resources and fosters further tool development. Other key functions enable extensive exploration and discovery...

Terminology for Neuroscience Data Discovery: Multi-tree Syntax and Investigator-Derived Semantics

Gardner, Daniel; Goldberg, David H.; Grafstein, Bernice; Robert, Adrian; Gardner, Esther P.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
246.96629%
The Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF), developed for the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research and available at http://nif.nih.gov and http://neurogateway.org, is built upon a set of coordinated terminology components enabling data and web-resource description and selection. Core NIF terminologies use a straightforward syntax designed for ease of use and for navigation by familiar web interfaces, and readily exportable to aid development of relational-model databases for neuroscience data sharing. Datasets, data analysis tools, web resources, and other entities are characterized by multiple descriptors, each addressing core concepts, including data type, acquisition technique, neuroanatomy, and cell class. Terms for each concept are organized in a tree structure, providing is-a and has-a relations. Broad general terms near each root span the category or concept and spawn more detailed entries for specificity. Related but distinct concepts (e.g., brain area and depth) are specified by separate trees, for easier navigation than would be required by graph representation. Semantics enabling NIF data discovery were selected at one or more workshops by investigators expert in particular systems (vision, olfaction, behavioral neuroscience...

Neuroanthropology: Evolution and Emotional Embodiment

Campbell, Benjamin C.; Garcia, Justin R.
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/11/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
246.96629%
The Decade of the Mind is a proposal for a research initiative focused on four areas of neuroscience, including mental health, high-level cognitive function, education, and computational applications. Organizing efforts to date have primarily included cognitive scientists, computer scientists, and engineers, as well as physicians. At the same time anthropologists have started to explore the implications of neuroscience for understanding culture. Here we suggest that evolutionary neuroscience can be used to bridge knowledge obtained by social scientists with that obtained in the neurosciences for a more complete appreciation of the mind. We consider such a perspective as neuroanthropology. We use embodiment, an anthropological concept that has been substantiated by recent findings in neuroscience, to illustrate an integrative biocultural approach within neuroanthropology and suggest future possible directions for research.

Theory and method at the intersection of anthropology and cultural neuroscience

Seligman, Rebecca; Brown, Ryan A.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
246.96629%
Anthropologists have become increasingly interested in embodiment—that is, the ways that socio-cultural factors influence the form, behavior and subjective experience of human bodies. At the same time, social cognitive neuroscience has begun to reveal the mechanisms of embodiment by investigating the neural underpinnings and consequences of social experience. Despite this overlap, the two fields have barely engaged one another. We suggest three interconnected domains of inquiry in which the intersection of neuroscience and anthropology can productively inform our understanding of the relationship between human brains and their socio-cultural contexts. These are: the social construction of emotion, cultural psychiatry, and the embodiment of ritual. We build on both current research findings in cultural neuroscience and ethnographic data on cultural differences in thought and behavior, to generate novel, ecologically informed hypotheses for future study. In addition, we lay out a specific suggestion for operationalizing insights from anthropology in the context of cultural neuroscience research. Specifically, we advocate the development of field studies that use portable measurement technologies to connect individual patterns of biological response with socio-cultural processes. We illustrate the potential of such an approach with data from a study of psychophysiology and religious devotion in Northeastern Brazil.

The Neurodynamics of Cognition: A Tutorial on Computational Cognitive Neuroscience

Ashby, F. Gregory; Helie, Sebastien
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/08/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
246.96629%
Computational Cognitive Neuroscience (CCN) is a new field that lies at the intersection of computational neuroscience, machine learning, and neural network theory (i.e., connectionism). The ideal CCN model should not make any assumptions that are known to contradict the current neuroscience literature and at the same time provide good accounts of behavior and at least some neuroscience data (e.g., single-neuron activity, fMRI data). Furthermore, once set, the architecture of the CCN network and the models of each individual unit should remain fixed throughout all applications. Because of the greater weight they place on biological accuracy, CCN models differ substantially from traditional neural network models in how each individual unit is modeled, how learning is modeled, and how behavior is generated from the network. A variety of CCN solutions to these three problems are described. A real example of this approach is described, and some advantages and limitations of the CCN approach are discussed.

A hybrid human and machine resource curation pipeline for the Neuroscience Information Framework

Bandrowski, A. E.; Cachat, J.; Li, Y.; Müller, H. M.; Sternberg, P. W.; Ciccarese, P.; Clark, T.; Marenco, L.; Wang, R.; Astakhov, V.; Grethe, J. S.; Martone, M. E.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/02/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
246.96629%
The breadth of information resources available to researchers on the Internet continues to expand, particularly in light of recently implemented data-sharing policies required by funding agencies. However, the nature of dense, multifaceted neuroscience data and the design of contemporary search engine systems makes efficient, reliable and relevant discovery of such information a significant challenge. This challenge is specifically pertinent for online databases, whose dynamic content is ‘hidden’ from search engines. The Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF; http://www.neuinfo.org) was funded by the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research to address the problem of finding and utilizing neuroscience-relevant resources such as software tools, data sets, experimental animals and antibodies across the Internet. From the outset, NIF sought to provide an accounting of available resources, whereas developing technical solutions to finding, accessing and utilizing them. The curators therefore, are tasked with identifying and registering resources, examining data, writing configuration files to index and display data and keeping the contents current. In the initial phases of the project, all aspects of the registration and curation processes were manual. However...

How has neuroscience affected lay understandings of personhood? A review of the evidence

O’Connor, Cliodhna; Joffe, Helene
Fonte: SAGE Publications Publicador: SAGE Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
248.53184%
The prominence of neuroscience in the public sphere has escalated in recent years, provoking questions about how the public engages with neuroscientific ideas. Commentaries on neuroscience’s role in society often present it as having revolutionary implications, fundamentally overturning established beliefs about personhood. The purpose of this article is to collate and review the extant empirical evidence on the influence of neuroscience on commonsense understandings of personhood. The article evaluates the scope of neuroscience’s presence in public consciousness and examines the empirical evidence for three frequently encountered claims about neuroscience’s societal influence: that neuroscience fosters a conception of the self that is based in biology, that neuroscience promotes conceptions of individual fate as predetermined, and that neuroscience attenuates the stigma attached to particular social categories. It concludes that many neuroscientific ideas have assimilated in ways that perpetuate rather than challenge existing modes of understanding self, others and society.

Media Reporting of Neuroscience Depends on Timing, Topic and Newspaper Type

van Atteveldt, Nienke M.; van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra I.; Jacobi, Carina; Ruigrok, Nel
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/08/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
248.53184%
The rapid developments in neuroscientific techniques raise high expectations among the general public and therefore warrant close monitoring of the translation to the media and daily-life applications. The need of empirical research into neuroscience communication is emphasized by its susceptibility to evoke misconceptions and polarized beliefs. As the mass media are the main sources of information about (neuro-)science for a majority of the general public, the objective of the current research is to quantify how critically and accurately newspapers report on neuroscience as a function of the timing of publication (within or outside of periods of heightened media attention to neuroscience, termed “news waves”), the topic of the research (e.g. development, health, law) and the newspaper type (quality, popular, free newspapers). The results show that articles published during neuroscience news waves were less neutral and more optimistic, but not different in accuracy. Furthermore, the overall tone and accuracy of articles depended on the topic; for example, articles on development often had an optimistic tone whereas articles on law were often skeptical or balanced, and articles on health care had highest accuracy. Average accuracy was rather low...

A scalable neuroinformatics data flow for electrophysiological signals using MapReduce

Jayapandian, Catherine; Wei, Annan; Ramesh, Priya; Zonjy, Bilal; Lhatoo, Samden D.; Loparo, Kenneth; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Sahoo, Satya S.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/03/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
248.53184%
Data-driven neuroscience research is providing new insights in progression of neurological disorders and supporting the development of improved treatment approaches. However, the volume, velocity, and variety of neuroscience data generated from sophisticated recording instruments and acquisition methods have exacerbated the limited scalability of existing neuroinformatics tools. This makes it difficult for neuroscience researchers to effectively leverage the growing multi-modal neuroscience data to advance research in serious neurological disorders, such as epilepsy. We describe the development of the Cloudwave data flow that uses new data partitioning techniques to store and analyze electrophysiological signal in distributed computing infrastructure. The Cloudwave data flow uses MapReduce parallel programming algorithm to implement an integrated signal data processing pipeline that scales with large volume of data generated at high velocity. Using an epilepsy domain ontology together with an epilepsy focused extensible data representation format called Cloudwave Signal Format (CSF), the data flow addresses the challenge of data heterogeneity and is interoperable with existing neuroinformatics data representation formats, such as HDF5. The scalability of the Cloudwave data flow is evaluated using a 30-node cluster installed with the open source Hadoop software stack. The results demonstrate that the Cloudwave data flow can process increasing volume of signal data by leveraging Hadoop Data Nodes to reduce the total data processing time. The Cloudwave data flow is a template for developing highly scalable neuroscience data processing pipelines using MapReduce algorithms to support a variety of user applications.

Divulgação científica da neurociência: uma possibilidade de contribuir para a autopercepção na infância

Nunes, Melissa Orlandin
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
248.53184%
A neurociência, ao propiciar um melhor entendimento do funcionamento do cérebro, tem sido objeto de interesse não só do meio acadêmico, sendo perceptível que questões e curiosidades acerca desse tema costumam ser muito comuns entre a população em geral. Esses assuntos, facilmente aproximados do cotidiano das pessoas, também geram dúvidas nas crianças. Considerando que atualmente a neurociência tem sido altamente divulgada pela mídia, a presente dissertação teve como objetivo investigar, através de pesquisa bibliográfica, revistas e livros voltados ao público infantil e infantojuvenil que trouxessem conteúdo na área da neurociência, em especial relacionado a questões educacionais. A pesquisa envolveu análise qualitativa e quantitativa das revistas “Ciência Hoje das Crianças” e “Mundo Estranho” e dos livros “Pisando no freio”, “Jogos e treinamentos de inteligência: como ter a mente de um gênio” e a coleção “Aventuras de um neurônio lembrador”. Em relação às revistas, foram consideradas as edições referentes ao período de janeiro de 2010 a dezembro de 2013. Quanto aos livros, consideramos publicações a partir de 2004. Ao fim do estudo, concluímos que a abordagem dessa temática ocorre...

Mapping Connectivity Damage in the Case of Phineas Gage

Van Horn, John Darrell; Irimia, Andrei; Torgerson, Carinna M.; Chambers, Micah C.; Toga, Arthur W.; Kikinis, Ron
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
248.53184%
White matter (WM) mapping of the human brain using neuroimaging techniques has gained considerable interest in the neuroscience community. Using diffusion weighted (DWI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), WM fiber pathways between brain regions may be systematically assessed to make inferences concerning their role in normal brain function, influence on behavior, as well as concerning the consequences of network-level brain damage. In this paper, we investigate the detailed connectomics in a noted example of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) which has proved important to and controversial in the history of neuroscience. We model the WM damage in the notable case of Phineas P. Gage, in whom a “tamping iron” was accidentally shot through his skull and brain, resulting in profound behavioral changes. The specific effects of this injury on Mr. Gage's WM connectivity have not previously been considered in detail. Using computed tomography (CT) image data of the Gage skull in conjunction with modern anatomical MRI and diffusion imaging data obtained in contemporary right handed male subjects (aged 25–36), we computationally simulate the passage of the iron through the skull on the basis of reported and observed skull fiducial landmarks and assess the extent of cortical gray matter (GM) and WM damage. Specifically...

An analysis of the abstracts presented at the annual meetings of the Society for Neuroscience from 2001 to 2006

Lin, J. M.; Bohland, J. W.; Andrews, P.; Burns, G.; Allen, C. B.; Mitra, P. P.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
248.53184%
We extracted and processed abstract data from the SFN annual meeting abstracts during the period 2001-2006, using techniques and software from natural language processing, database management, and data visualization and analysis. An important first step in the process was the application of data cleaning and disambiguation methods to construct a unified database, since the data were too noisy to be of full utility in the raw form initially available. The resulting co-author graph in 2006, for example, had 39,645 nodes (with an estimated 6% error rate in our disambiguation of similar author names) and 13,979 abstracts, with an average of 1.5 abstracts per author, 4.3 authors per abstract, and 5.96 collaborators per author (including all authors on shared abstracts). Recent work in related areas has focused on reputational indices such as highly cited papers or scientists and journal impact factors, and to a lesser extent on creating visual maps of the knowledge space. In contrast, there has been relatively less work on the demographics and community structure, the dynamics of the field over time to examine major research trends and the structure of the sources of research funding. In this paper we examined each of these areas in order to gain an objective overview of contemporary neuroscience. Some interesting findings include a high geographical concentration of neuroscience research in north eastern United States...

Textpresso for Neuroscience: Searching the Full Text of Thousands of Neuroscience Research Papers

Mueller, Hans-Michael; Rangarajan, Arun; Teal, Tracy K.; Sternberg, Paul W.
Fonte: Humana Press Inc. Publicador: Humana Press Inc.
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2008
Relevância na Pesquisa
248.53184%
Textpresso is a text-mining system for scientific literature. Its two major features are access to the full text of research papers and the development and use of categories of biological concepts as well as categories that describe or relate objects. A search engine enables the user to search for one or a combination of these categories and/or keywords within an entire literature. Here we describe Textpresso for Neuroscience, part of the core Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF). The Textpresso site currently consists of 67,500 full text papers and 131,300 abstracts. We show that using categories in literature can make a pure keyword query more refined and meaningful. We also show how semantic queries can be formulated with categories only. We explain the build and content of the database and describe the main features of the web pages and the advanced search options. We also give detailed illustrations of the web service developed to provide programmatic access to Textpresso. This web service is used by the NIF interface to access Textpresso. The standalone website of Textpresso for Neuroscience can be accessed at http://www.textpresso.org/neuroscience.

Understanding Cognition

Steenbergen, Gordon J.
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
248.53184%

Cognitive neuroscience is an interdisciplinary enterprise aimed at explaining cognition and behavior. It appears to be succeeding. What accounts for this apparent explanatory success? According to one prominent philosophical thesis, cognitive neuroscience explains by discovering and describing mechanisms. This "mechanist thesis" is open to at least two interpretations: a strong metaphysical thesis that Carl Craver and David Kaplan defend, and a weaker methodological thesis that William Bechtel defends. I argue that the metaphysical thesis is false and that the methodological thesis is too weak to account for the explanatory promise of cognitive neuroscience. My argument draws support from a representative example of research in this field, namely, the neuroscience of decision-making. The example shows that cognitive neuroscience explains in a variety of ways and that the discovery of mechanisms functions primarily as a way of marshaling evidence in support of the models of cognition that are its principle unit of explanatory significance.

The inadequacy of the mechanist program is symptomatic of an implausible but prominent view of scientific understanding. On this view, scientific understanding consists in an accurate and complete description of certain "objective" explanatory relations...

Managing Stigma Effectively: What Social Psychology and Social Neuroscience Can Teach Us.

Griffith, JL; Kohrt, BA
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/07/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
248.53184%
Psychiatric education is confronted with three barriers to managing stigma associated with mental health treatment. First, there are limited evidence-based practices for stigma reduction, and interventions to deal with stigma against mental health care providers are especially lacking. Second, there is a scarcity of training models for mental health professionals on how to reduce stigma in clinical services. Third, there is a lack of conceptual models for neuroscience approaches to stigma reduction, which are a requirement for high-tier competency in the ACGME Milestones for Psychiatry. The George Washington University (GWU) psychiatry residency program has developed an eight-week course on managing stigma that is based on social psychology and social neuroscience research. The course draws upon social neuroscience research demonstrating that stigma is a normal function of normal brains resulting from evolutionary processes in human group behavior. Based on these processes, stigma can be categorized according to different threats that include peril stigma, disruption stigma, empathy fatigue, moral stigma, and courtesy stigma. Grounded in social neuroscience mechanisms, residents are taught to develop interventions to manage stigma. Case examples illustrate application to common clinical challenges: (1) helping patients anticipate and manage stigma encountered in the family...