Últimos itens adicionados do Acervo: Harvard University

A Universidade de Harvard (em inglês: Harvard University) é uma universidade privada membro da Ivy League, localizada em Cambridge, Massachusetts, Estados Unidos, e cuja história, influência e riqueza tornam-a uma das mais prestigiadas universidades do mundo.

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Civic Knighthood in the Early Renaissance: Leonardo Bruni's De militia (ca. 1420)

Hankins, James
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Outros
EN_US
Leonardo Bruni's aim in the De militia (ca. 1420) was to co-opt the most glamorous of medieval ideals, the ideal of chivalry, and to reinterpret it in terms of Greco-Roman ideals of military service. In so doing he aimed to make the reform of knighthood in Renaissance Florence into an aspect of the revival of antiquity.; History

Preference Elicitation in Proxied Multiattribute Auctions

Sunderam, Aditya Vikram; Parkes, David C.
Fonte: Association for Computing Machinery Publicador: Association for Computing Machinery
Tipo: Conference Paper
EN_US
We consider the problem of minimizing preference elicitation in efficient multiattribute auctions, that support dynamic negotiation over non-price based attributes such as quality, time-of-delivery, and processor speed. We introduce asynchronous price-based multiattribute auctions, with proxy bidding agents that sit between the auctioneer and the participants. Empirical results demonstrate the preference elicitation savings that are provided with minimal price spaces, asynchronous updates, and proxy agents.; Engineering and Applied Sciences

Five AI Challenges in Strategyproof Computing

Parkes, David C.
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Conference Paper
EN_US
Computational systems are now distributed by default, and designed, owned and used by multiple self-interested parties. In the face of this growing system complexity, we need a unifying design paradigm, that supports continued innovation and competition while promoting easy deployment, operation, and use. Focusing on the central problem of resource allocation---the arbitration of shared resources among the competing demands of users---we introduce a paradigm of strategyproof computing, a vision in which individual users can treat other resources as their own. We layout the benefits of strategyproof computing, and identify five AI challenges in making this vision a reality.; Engineering and Applied Sciences

Challenge Problem: Agent-Mediated Decentralized Information Mechanisms

Parkes, David C.
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Conference Paper
EN_US
Pervasive computing, driven by faster, cheaper and smaller devices, and wireless networking technology, promises to make people perpetual users of a massive and decentralized computational system. Pervasive computing blurs the boundary between the physical and the virtual. Information, always cheap to duplicate, now becomes cheap to generate everywhere. At once both the opportunities, such as for data mining and collaborative ltering, and the dangers, such as for privacy abuse, are clear. As a challenge to the agent community this paper proposes the development of agent-mediated, decentralized informationprocessing mechanisms, that enshrine the principles of information property rights and provides economic incentives to support efficient information sharing.We discuss the complementary roles of markets, informationdegradation and aggregation, and reputation, within such a mechanism, and propose a straw-man model.; Engineering and Applied Sciences

iBundle: An Efficient Ascending Price Bundle Auction

Parkes, David C.
Fonte: Association for Computing Machinery Publicador: Association for Computing Machinery
Tipo: Monograph or Book
EN_US
Standard auction mechanisms often break down in important e-commerce applications, where agents demand bundles of complementary resources, i.e. "I only want B if I also get A". This paper describes iBundle, an ascending-price auction that is guaranteed to compute optimal bundle allocations with agents that follow a best-response bidding strategy. The auction prices bundles directly and allows agents to place additive or exclusive-or bids over collections of bundles. Empirical results confirm that iBundle generates efficient allocations for hard resource allocation problems. Furthermore, we shoe that iBundle generates solutions without complete revelation (or computation) of agent preferences.; Engineering and Applied Sciences

Automatic Pose Estimation for Range Images on the GPU

Germann, Marcel; Breitenstein, Michael D.; Park, In Hyun; Pfister, Hanspeter
Fonte: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Publicador: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Tipo: Monograph or Book
EN_US
Object pose (location and orientation) estimation is a common task in many computer vision applications. Although many methods exist, most algorithms need manual initialization and lack robustness to illumination variation, appearance change, and partial occlusions. We propose a fast method for automatic pose estimation without manual initialization based on shape matching of a 3D model to a range image of the scene. We developed a new error function to compare the input range image to pre-computed range maps of the 3D model. We use the tremendous data-parallel processing performance of modern graphics hardware to evaluate and minimize the error function on many range images in parallel. Our algorithm is simple and accurately estimates the pose of partially occluded objects in cluttered scenes in about one second.; Engineering and Applied Sciences

The ALS-Linked Gene TDP-43 Regulates \(IFN\beta\) Expression through a Novel Mechanism of 3' UTR-Mediated Promoter cis-Regulation

Deering, Raquel Payzant
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
The TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) is a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleprotein that is involved in multiple stages of RNA processing. Mutations in the TDP-43 gene and mislocalization of TDP-43 protein have been implicated in a growing number of neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Here, we show that TDP-43 negatively regulates innate immune gene expression in response to RNA virus sensing. Perturbation of TDP-43 protein expression leads to an increase in antiviral gene expression in a variety of human and mouse cells. Crosslinked RNA immunoprecipitation (CLIP) experiments revealed that TDP-43 binds to type I interferon (IFN) and interferon stimulated gene (ISGs) transcripts. Using massively parallel 3’ UTR reporter assays coupled with high throughput sequencing (MPRA-seq), we identified polyadenylation signal sequences in the 3' UTRs of innate immune genes to be specifically regulated by TDP-43. Surprisingly, IFN and ISG mRNA decay rates are faster in TDP-43-perturbed cells. Using a metabolic labeling approach to measure nascent transcript generation, we found that perturbation of TDP-43 expression leads to an increase in antiviral gene transcription rates. Additionally...

Construction of Energy Functions for Lattice Heteropolymer Models: Efficient Encodings for Constraint Satisfaction Programming and Quantum Annealing

Babbush, Ryan Joseph; Perdomo-Ortiz, Alejandro; O'Gorman, Bryan Andrew; Macready, William; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Optimization problems associated with the interaction of linked particles are at the heart of polymer science, protein folding and other important problems in the physical sciences. In this review we explain how to recast these problems as constraint satisfaction problems such as linear programming, maximum satisfiability, and pseudo-boolean optimization. By encoding problems this way, one can leverage substantial insight and powerful solvers from the computer science community which studies constraint programming for diverse applications such as logistics, scheduling, artificial intelligence, and circuit design. We demonstrate how to constrain and embed lattice heteropolymer problems using several strategies. Each strikes a unique balance between number of constraints, complexity of constraints, and number of variables. In addition, each strategy has distinct advantages and disadvantages depending on problem size and available resources. Finally, we show how to reduce the locality of couplings in these energy functions so they can be realized as Hamiltonians on existing adiabatic quantum annealing machines.; Chemistry and Chemical Biology

Cleopatra's Nose - and the Development of World History

Canales, Jimena
Fonte: Bom Dia Boa Tarde Boa Noite Publicador: Bom Dia Boa Tarde Boa Noite
Tipo: Monograph or Book
EN_US
History of Science

Predicting Climate Change Impacts on the Amount and Duration of Autumn Colors in a New England Forest

Richardson, Andrew; Archetti, Marco; O'Keefe, John F.; Delpierre, Nicolas
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Climate change affects the phenology of many species. As temperature and precipitation are thought to control autumn color change in temperate deciduous trees, it is possible that climate change might also affect the phenology of autumn colors. Using long-term data for eight tree species in a New England hardwood forest, we show that the timing and cumulative amount of autumn color are correlated with variation in temperature and precipitation at specific times of the year. A phenological model driven by accumulated cold degree-days and photoperiod reproduces most of the interspecific and interannual variability in the timing of autumn colors. We use this process-oriented model to predict changes in the phenology of autumn colors to 2099, showing that, while responses vary among species, climate change under standard IPCC projections will lead to an overall increase in the amount of autumn colors for most species.; Organismic and Evolutionary Biology

Re-Viewing the Past: The Uses of History in the Cinema of Japan, 1925-1945

O'Reilly, Sean D.
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
EN
In this thesis I use historical films to construct a social history of Japan's tumultuous interwar and wartime periods. I analyze filmic depictions of the Bakumatsu period (1853-1868), Japan's rocky transition to modernity, from the perspective of the audiences of 1925-1945, an era in which societal interest in representations of the Bakumatsu period soared. Methodologically, I use close visual analysis but move beyond an aesthetically-minded film studies approach to raise issues of audience reception, war and society, empire, sexuality and gender, censorship, urban spaces and popular culture in modern Japan. I have thereby intervened in the existing scholarship, which has either largely ignored films or focused overmuch on film's aesthetic merits. I seek to reclaim films, especially popular films, as historical sources. Close visual analysis illuminates aspects of visual texts that a solely historiographic approach might overlook. And a 'history-as-experience' focus on the audience, and the history of the period in which a given visual text was produced, is critical to the process of historical contextualization. The body of films I analyze offers vital evidence of then-current socio-cultural conditions and perspectives on history. I analyze commercially successful films...

Tragic palimpsests: The reception of Euripides in Ovid's Metamorphoses

Paschalis, Sergios
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
EN
The subject of this dissertation is the reception of Euripidean tragedy in Ovid’s Metamorphoses. In Chapter 1 I offer a general survey of the afterlife of Euripidean drama in the major mediating intertexts between Euripides and Ovid, namely Hellenistic poetry, Roman Republican tragedy, and Virgil’s Aeneid, as well as a review of the pervasive presence of the Greek tragedian in the Ovidian corpus. Chapter 2 focuses on the reception of Euripides’ Bacchae in the Metamorphoses. The starting point of my analysis is Ovid’s epic rewriting of the Euripidean play in the Pentheus episode. Next, I argue that Ovid makes use of the allusive technique of “fragmentation”, in the sense that he grafts elements of the Bacchae in the narratives of the Minyads and Orpheus. The final section examines Ovid’s portrayal of Procne, Medea, and Byblis as maenads and their evocation of the Virgilian Bacchants Dido and Amata. In Chapter 3 I begin by investigating Ovid’s intertextual engagement with Euripides’ Medea in the Medea narrative of Book 7, which is read as an epicized “mega-tragedy” encompassing the Colchian’s entire mythical career. In the second part of the chapter I discuss the Roman poet’s reworking of the Euripidean tragedy in other episodes of the Metamorphoses and argue that Procne...

Image and Inscription in the Painterly Manuscripts From Ottonian Cologne

O'Driscoll, Joshua
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
EN
Focusing on a small number of richly illuminated manuscripts produced in Cologne around the year 1000—and known to scholars since the early twentieth century as the so-called "painterly" group of manuscripts—this dissertation takes the close study of a well-defined group of objects as the starting point for an examination of issues central to broader histories of medieval art. A diptych-like pairing of miniatures with inscriptions, each of which is given a full page, constitutes a characteristic feature of these manuscripts. Because these inscriptions were written specifically to accompany the facing images, the manuscripts from Cologne afford us a rare glimpse of a discourse on art and image making in the tenth and eleventh centuries, as well as providing insights into how such miniatures were meant to be viewed. The first chapter establishes a theoretical framework for the project, which examines both the historical and the scholarly origins of the Cologne School. Moreover, the concept of a "painterly" style is scrutinized and its use is traced back to significant developments in German art-historical writing of the late nineteenth century. The second chapter—devoted to a remarkable, yet relatively unknown tenth-century gospel book in Milan—demonstrates how the manuscript's carefully-crafted pictorial program draws upon an impressive tradition of Carolingian poetry and epigraphy in order to instill a pointed moralizing lesson on its recipient. A closely related sister-manuscript...

L'invenzione Della Montagna. Significati E Valori Dello Spazio Nel Fascismo E Nella Resistenza

Boscolo Berto, Angela
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
IT
Questa tesi discute il ruolo, la funzione e i significati attribuiti alla montagna in due periodi capitali della storia del Novecento: il fascismo e la Resistenza. Nella prima sezione di questa ricerca ripercorro alcune tappe significative della politica ambientale fascista che aiutano a comprendere l’impatto che il regime ha avuto sul paesaggio montano italiano. Con le sue bonifiche, le migliorie agrarie e il rimboschimento ma anche le semine degli alberi, le cerimonie commemorative nei sacrari della Grande Guerra e le attività sponsorizzate dal nuovo turismo di massa, il fascismo vede nel territorio un originale strumento di autorappresentazione e una grande occasione nel contesto mondiale per definirsi in chiave moderna. Nelle stesse montagne che il fascismo conquista dopo l’armistizio del ‘43 andranno migliaia di partigiani ma con scopi molto diversi da quelli che si erano prefissati i gerarchi del regime, cambiando radicalmente la semantica stessa dell’andare in montagna. Nella seconda parte di questo studio rivisito alcune grandi opere degli scrittori della Resistenza (Fenoglio, Meneghello, Calvino, ma anche Pavese) dalle quali si evince come la memoria del paesaggio della guerra, alla prova col testo, resiste la canonica funzione di cornice naturalistica per incarnarsi in luogo dal quale emerge la coscienza dello scrittore e a cui vengono attribuiti inediti significati simbolici. È il nuovo valore di questa montagna...

On Perception's Role in Aristotle’s Epistemology

Gasser, Marc
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
EN
Aristotle thinks all our knowledge comes from perception. Yet he doesn't say much about the sense in which our knowledge might be based on or derived from the things we perceive. So what exactly does perception contribute to the more advanced cognitive states that make up our intellectual lives, and how should we understand the nature of its contribution? I argue that perception contributes to these more advanced states by putting us in touch with particular things in a way that's responsive to the universals governing their behavior: perceptible particulars possess certain features because they instantiate certain universals, and perception allows us to discriminate these features and experience them as action-guiding aspects of our environment. So for instance, a patient might exhibit feverish features because she instantiates malarial disease, and a doctor might perceive these feverish features and experience them as soliciting some course of action---as soliciting that the patient be leeched, say. I explain how perception, so understood, can serve as a basis for the development of a perceptually driven form of practical knowledge (ἐμπειρία); roughly, the form of knowledge possessed by a doctor who knows how to cure a range of patients but could not explain why or how her treatments work. I then explain how such practical knowledge can itself serve as a basis for the theoretically sophisticated grasp of universals Aristotle takes as his cognitive ideal.; Philosophy

Plasmodium's Crossroads: Deciphering the Molecular Pathway That Leads to Malaria Transmission

Goldowitz, Ilana Sarah
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
EN
Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of the most severe form of malaria. Transmission from humans to mosquito vectors is an essential step in this eukaryotic parasite‘s life cycle and in the spread of malaria disease, which killed nearly 600,000 people in 2013. I investigated the developmental switch parasites make to the transmission stage or gametocyte, with the goal of identifying molecular mechanisms and environmental triggers of gametocyte formation. In Chapter 2 of this dissertation, I discuss the completion of a genetic mutagenesis screen leading to the discovery of a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase enzyme which is likely a negative regulator of gametocyte formation. Chapter 3 presents findings on population-based regulation of gametocyte production and on parasite-derived microvesicles that transfer between cells and stimulate gametocyte production. In Chapter 4, I and coauthors present a protocol for measuring parasite growth and gametocyte production in response to drugs or other treatments.; Chemical Biology

Urban Legends: The South Bronx in Representation and Ruin

L'Official, Pete Thomas
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
"Urban Legends: The South Bronx in Representation and Ruin" examines the construction of the South Bronx in the American imagination during the 1970s and 1980s--a time when the South Bronx was synonymous with the failures of urbanism. The project attempts a multidisciplinary excavation of the cultural manifestations of urban ruin as articulated through the histories, literatures, and visual arts produced within and inspired by the ruins of the Bronx. The dissertation contends that Bronx ruins offered a site for visual artists, writers, and photographers to create new ways of understanding the production and perception of urban environments, while shaping the forms and styles that these creations took. The project theorizes the emergence and legacy of these forms alongside what it terms "municipal art": public works of city governmental bodies which, themselves, responded to ruin, and that might also be read as art. The dissertation's first part places the building cuts of the artist Gordon Matta-Clark in dialogue with the trompe l'oeil window decals of New York's "Occupied Look" program. It argues, on one hand, that Matta-Clark's artworks employ the tactics and effects of trompe l'oeil, and, on the other, that the seemingly failed "Occupied Look" project presents...

'Making People Happy, Not Making Happy People': A Defense of the Asymmetry Intuition in Population Ethics

Frick, Johann David
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
This dissertation provides a defense of the normative intuition known as the Procreation Asymmetry, according to which there is a strong moral reason not to create a life that will foreseeably not be worth living, but there is no moral reason to create a life just because it would foreseeably be worth living. Chapter 1 investigates how to reconcile the Procreation Asymmetry with our intuitions about another recalcitrant problem case in population ethics: Derek Parfit's Non-Identity Problem. I show that what has prevented philosophers from developing a theory that gives a satisfactory account of both these problems is their tacit commitment to a teleological conception of well-being, as something to be `promoted'. Replacing this picture with one according to which our reasons to confer well-being on people are conditional on their existence allows me to do better. It also enables us to understand some of the deep structural parallels between seemingly disparate normative phenomena such as procreating and promising. Chapter 2 attempts to connect my defense of the Procreation Asymmetry to corresponding evaluative claims about the goodness of the outcomes produced by procreative decisions. I propose a view, the `biconditional buck-passing view of outcome betterness'...

The Religious Significance of Kant's Copernican Revolution

Lockwood, Charles Evans
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
This dissertation argues that Immanuel Kant's critical philosophy must be understood as an attempt to hold together a robust commitment to divine transcendence and an affirmation of immanent human activity. This argument is developed through an examination of Kant's Copernican revolution, or his account of how human beings must play an active rather than merely passive role in the theoretical and practical domains. Kant's revolution involves an appeal to what can be called our self-legislation, or our role in giving ourselves laws that structure our cognition and volition. A persistent strand of interpretation has maintained that Kant's emphasis on our self-legislation, signaled through his Copernican revolution, rules out any significant role for religious or theological claims. Indeed, Kant is often seen as initiating a modern anthropocentric turn, marking the shift away from a pre-modern theocentric perspective. This dissertation shows, however, that rather than privileging either a God-centered or a human-centered perspective, Kant is instead concerned both with what the divine and human share and with what distinguishes them from one another, and this theme is borne out in Kant's theoretical philosophy, his practical philosophy...

Iran's Situations: Military Violence, Protests, and Group Dynamics

Saha, Sparsha
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
Iran is a country with a rich history of successful social movements and not so successful ones. The two most recent ones---1979 and 2009---set up a very unique puzzle that sheds some light not only on the factors of micro-variation (in levels of violence against protesters) within states over time, but also on the factors that drive variation within a protest wave---factors that are related to the design of a state's security system (for example, multiple security force actors that provide options for protest policing). Explaining variation across and within these two cases requires that we think about the ensuing potential for violent conflict as inter-group related. In order to predict violence on protesters in Iran, it is necessary to measure the level of representativeness in the military organization, which I disaggregate at the level of the security force actor (Basij/IRGC/Artesh), and consider this in relation to the composition of the protesting crowd. The more representative a security force body within the military, the less likely is the outbreak of violence in any given protest event if that body is involved. This is because representative entities are less likely to view crowds as part of a threatening other.; Government