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Can neuroscience inform economics? Rationality, emotions and preference formation

Martins, Nuno O.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 ENG
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Copyright © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Cambridge Political Economy Society. All rights reserved.; The interaction between neuroscience and economics has gained much prominence recently, leading to the emergence of the new and expanding field of neuroeconomics. I will argue that, although there is much insight to be gained from the interaction between neuroscience and economics, the implications of recent developments in neuroscience and neuroeconomics for the deductivist methodology of mainstream economics, and its emphasis on prediction of events, have not been sufficiently addressed. In fact, much research on neuroeconomics has contributed to the formulation of deductivist models aimed at the prediction of events, when the more fruitful use of neuroscience in economics consists rather in the utilisation of its insights for the development of an explanation of social behaviour that moves beyond the mainstream deductivist methodology. The somatic marker hypothesis, developed by Damasio and others working closely with him, will be suggested as an alternative framework for conceptualising the emergence of social behaviour from a neurobiological substrate.

Ontologies for Neuroscience: What are they and What are they Good for?

Larson, Stephen D.; Martone, Maryann E.
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/05/2009 EN
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Current information technology practices in neuroscience make it difficult to understand the organization of the brain across spatial scales. Subcellular junctional connectivity, cytoarchitectural local connectivity, and long-range topographical connectivity are just a few of the relevant data domains that must be synthesized in order to make sense of the brain. However, due to the heterogeneity of the data produced within these domains, the landscape of multiscale neuroscience data is fragmented. A standard framework for neuroscience data is needed to bridge existing digital data resources and to help in the conceptual unification of the multiple disciplines of neuroscience. Using our efforts in building ontologies for neuroscience as an example, we examine the benefits and limits of ontologies as a solution for this data integration problem. We provide several examples of their application to problems of image annotation, content-based retrieval of structural data, and integration of data across scales and researchers.

Cyber-Workstation for Computational Neuroscience

DiGiovanna, Jack; Rattanatamrong, Prapaporn; Zhao, Ming; Mahmoudi, Babak; Hermer, Linda; Figueiredo, Renato; Principe, Jose C.; Fortes, Jose; Sanchez, Justin C.
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/01/2010 EN
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A Cyber-Workstation (CW) to study in vivo, real-time interactions between computational models and large-scale brain subsystems during behavioral experiments has been designed and implemented. The design philosophy seeks to directly link the in vivo neurophysiology laboratory with scalable computing resources to enable more sophisticated computational neuroscience investigation. The architecture designed here allows scientists to develop new models and integrate them with existing models (e.g. recursive least-squares regressor) by specifying appropriate connections in a block-diagram. Then, adaptive middleware transparently implements these user specifications using the full power of remote grid-computing hardware. In effect, the middleware deploys an on-demand and flexible neuroscience research test-bed to provide the neurophysiology laboratory extensive computational power from an outside source. The CW consolidates distributed software and hardware resources to support time-critical and/or resource-demanding computing during data collection from behaving animals. This power and flexibility is important as experimental and theoretical neuroscience evolves based on insights gained from data-intensive experiments, new technologies and engineering methodologies. This paper describes briefly the computational infrastructure and its most relevant components. Each component is discussed within a systematic process of setting up an in vivo...

Ten Challenges for Decision Neuroscience

Huettel, Scott A.
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/09/2010 EN
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Decision neuroscience research, as currently practiced, employs the methods of neuroscience to investigate concepts drawn from the social sciences. A typical study selects one or more variables from psychological or economic models, manipulates or measures choices within a simplified choice task, and then identifies neural correlates. Using this “neuroeconomic” approach, researchers have described brain systems whose functioning shapes key economic variables, most notably aspects of subjective value. Yet, the standard approach has fundamental limitations. Important aspects of the mechanisms of decision making – from the sources of variability in decision making to the very computations supported by decision-related regions – remain incompletely understood. Here, I outline 10 outstanding challenges for future research in decision neuroscience. While some will be readily addressed using current methods, others will require new conceptual frameworks. Accordingly, a new strain of decision neuroscience will marry methods from economics and cognitive science to concepts from neurobiology and cognitive neuroscience.

And the Winner Is: Inviting Hollywood into the Neuroscience Classroom

Wiertelak, Eric P.
Fonte: Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience Publicador: Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/10/2002 EN
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Both short excerpts from, and full-length presentation of feature films have been used with success in undergraduate instruction. Studies of such use of films has revealed that incorporation of film viewing within courses can promote both content mastery and the development of critical thinking skills. This article discusses and provides examples of successful use of two methods that may be used to incorporate a variety of full-length feature films into neuroscience instruction. One, the “neuro-cinema” pairs the presentation of a film featuring extensive neuroscience content with primary literature reading assignments, group discussion and writing exercises. The second, a neuroscience film series, features group discussion of movies of perhaps more limited relevance to neuroscience.

Allegheny College Hosts Neuroscience and Humanities Summer Institute

Macel, Emily M.
Fonte: Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience Publicador: Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/10/2004 EN
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The Neuroscience and Humanities Summer Institute, hosted by Allegheny College, opened doors of opportunity, perception, and creativity for faculty and students across the nation. Offered first in 2002, and a second time in June of 2004, this weeklong event was designed to provide a medium for fostering development of interdisciplinary courses linking neuroscience and the humanities (e.g., the fine arts, philosophy and language). During the Institute, participants attended presentations by Allegheny faculty introducing the six courses of this type that they have developed starting in 2000, lectures by guest speakers, workshops, and discussion modules. Participants were encouraged to gather ideas about Allegheny’s neuroscience and humanities courses and formulate specific plans to take back to their schools. These opportunities and experiences resulted in the formation of valuable connections and the development of ideas around the links between neuroscience and humanities.

The Clinical Neuroscience Course: Viewing Mental Health from Neurobiological Perspectives

Lambert, Kelly G.
Fonte: Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience Publicador: Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/06/2005 EN
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Although the field of neuroscience is booming, a challenge for researchers in mental health disciplines is the integration of basic research findings into applied clinical approaches leading to effective therapies. Recently the National Institute of Mental Health called for translational research grants to encourage collaboration between neuroscientists and mental health professionals. In order for this “clinical neuroscience” to emerge and thrive, an important first step is the provision of appropriate course offerings so that future neuroscience researchers and mental health practitioners will have a common neurobiological base from which to make informed decisions about the most efficacious treatments for mental illnesses. Accordingly, an integrative course, Clinical Neuroscience, was developed to address these issues. After reviewing the historical origins of this emerging discipline, students are exposed to fundamental overviews of neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, and neural development before approaching the neurobiological components of several disorders (e.g., schizophrenia, depression, Tourette’s syndrome, drug abuse, obsessive compulsive disorder). Finally, the maintenance of mental health is emphasized as topics such as psychoneuroimmunology...

The Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: History, Challenges, and Future Developments

Dunbar, Gary L.; Lom, Barbara; Grisham, William; Ramirez, Julio J.
Fonte: Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience Publicador: Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/10/2009 EN
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The ‘JUNE and You’ sessions presented at the July 2008 Undergraduate Neuroscience Education workshop, sponsored jointly by Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience (FUN) and Project Kaleidoscope (PKAL), featured background information about the history and mission of the Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education (JUNE), followed by an informative discussion about the challenges facing JUNE, including new ideas for future developments. This article will highlight some of the information and ideas generated and shared at this conference. Critical discussion points included the need to keep members of FUN actively engaged in submitting and reviewing articles for JUNE. Ways in which authors, reviewers, and interested faculty members could best help in promoting the mission and vision of JUNE were discussed. Concerns about recent hackings into the JUNE website were also raised, and possible solutions and measures that can be taken to minimize this in the future were discussed. In addition, ideas for expanding the role of JUNE to provide a forum to evaluate new and emerging website information that is pertinent to undergraduate neuroscience education was discussed. Ideas for future developments of JUNE included revolving postings of articles as they are accepted...

Shared Innovations in Education: Writing and Reviewing for the Undergraduate Neuroscience Community

Wiertelak, Eric P.; Dunbar, Gary L.
Fonte: Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience Publicador: Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/10/2012 EN
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In the Fall of 2002, the Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience (FUN) began publication of its flagship journal, the Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education (JUNE). For the past ten years, JUNE has been a major forum for the free exchange of information among undergraduate neuroscience educators. Numerous articles on laboratory exercises, media, pedagogy, curriculum, and issues pertinent to neuroscience educators have been published in JUNE during the past decade. Given the vast expertise in pedagogy amongst the FUN membership and within the undergraduate neuroscience education community at large, we strongly encourage all FUN members and JUNE readers to become actively involved in JUNE by contributing manuscripts and/or by offering your services as a reviewer.

Service Learning in Neuroscience Courses

Mead, Kristina S.; Kennedy, Susan
Fonte: Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience Publicador: Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/10/2012 EN
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Incorporating service learning (SL) components can be a very powerful way to engage students, add relevance, and develop community-building skills. SL experiences can play important roles in neuroscience classes, although the roles can be different depending on the needs of the classes. In this paper, we will present two models of incorporating service learning into neuroscience courses. The first model gives an example of using SL in a non-majors course, and the second model gives an example of using SL in a neuroscience class for neuroscience concentrators. After describing the two sets of experiences, we summarize the positive aspects and the challenges involved in creating SL components in neuroscience courses, develop some keys to success, and then provide a list of additional resources.

Meeting the Challenge of Preparing Undergraduates for Careers in Cognitive Neuroscience

Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R.; Atapattu, Ranga K.
Fonte: Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience Publicador: Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/10/2010 EN
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Preparing students for a career in cognitive neuroscience may be especially challenging due to the expense and complexity of many types of cognitive neuroscience technologies. However, it is possible to train students in cognitive neuroscience at a primarily undergraduate university (PUI) in both the classroom and the laboratory. First, we propose specific methods that can be used in the classroom to make cognitive neuroscience material accessible. We also suggest ways to introduce cognitive neuroscience methodology through lab-based courses or activities. Second, we offer suggestions on how to conduct more complex functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalogram (EEG) research with undergraduates at a small school. We hope that these suggestions will be a helpful guide for those wishing to prepare their students for further studies and careers in this exciting and challenging field.

“Writing in Neuroscience”: A Course Designed for Neuroscience Undergraduate Students

Adams, Joyce
Fonte: Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience Publicador: Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/10/2011 EN
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Although neuroscience students may learn to write in a generic fashion through university writing courses, they receive little training in writing in their field. Here I describe a course that was created at the request of a Neuroscience Department with the intent to teach neuroscience students how to write well in their discipline. I explain the purpose for creating the “Writing in Neuroscience” course and offer a brief overview of the course curriculum, including pertinent pedagogical outcomes for such a course. I describe in depth the major assignment for the course, the literature review, and provide examples of paper titles that students wrote to fulfill the assignment. I briefly describe other relevant course assignments. I evaluate the course and include an overview of who should teach such a course, what support might be helpful, and what can be learned from formative assessment of the course. Using these insights can help others determine whether such a course is a good fit for them.

NeuroLex.org: an online framework for neuroscience knowledge

Larson, Stephen D.; Martone, Maryann E.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/08/2013 EN
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The ability to transmit, organize, and query information digitally has brought with it the challenge of how to best use this power to facilitate scientific inquiry. Today, few information systems are able to provide detailed answers to complex questions about neuroscience that account for multiple spatial scales, and which cross the boundaries of diverse parts of the nervous system such as molecules, cellular parts, cells, circuits, systems and tissues. As a result, investigators still primarily seek answers to their questions in an increasingly densely populated collection of articles in the literature, each of which must be digested individually. If it were easier to search a knowledge base that was structured to answer neuroscience questions, such a system would enable questions to be answered in seconds that would otherwise require hours of literature review. In this article, we describe NeuroLex.org, a wiki-based website and knowledge management system. Its goal is to bring neurobiological knowledge into a framework that allows neuroscientists to review the concepts of neuroscience, with an emphasis on multiscale descriptions of the parts of nervous systems, aggregate their understanding with that of other scientists, link them to data sources and descriptions of important concepts in neuroscience...

Community-based, Experiential Learning for Second Year Neuroscience Undergraduates

Yu, Heather J.; Ramos-Goyette, Sharon; McCoy, John G.; Tirrell, Michael E.
Fonte: Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience Publicador: Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/10/2013 EN
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Service learning is becoming a keystone of the undergraduate learning experience. At Stonehill College, we implemented a service learning course, called a Learning Community, in Neuroscience. This course was created to complement the basic research available to Stonehill Neuroscience majors with experience in a more applied and “clinical” setting. The Neuroscience Learning Community is designed to promote a deep understanding of Neuroscience by combining traditional classroom instruction with clinical perspectives and real-life experiences. This Neuroscience Learning Community helps students translate abstract concepts within the context of neurodevelopment by providing students with contextual experience in a real-life, unscripted setting. The experiential learning outside of the classroom enabled students to participate in informed discussions in the classroom, especially with regard to neurodevelopmental disorders. We believe that all students taking this course gain an understanding of the importance of basic and applied Neuroscience as it relates to the individual and the community. Students also have used this concrete, learning-by-doing experience to make informed decisions about career paths and choice of major.

Critical neuroscience—or critical science? A perspective on the perceived normative significance of neuroscience

Schleim, Stephan
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/05/2014 EN
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Members of the Critical Neuroscience initiative raised the question whether the perceived normative significance of neuroscience is justified by the discipline’s actual possibilities. In this paper I show how brain research was assigned the ultimate political, social, and moral authority by some leading researchers who suggested that neuroscientists should change their research priorities, promising solutions to social challenges in order to increase research funds. Discussing the two examples of cognitive enhancement and the neuroscience of (im)moral behavior I argue that there is indeed a gap between promises and expectations on the one hand and knowledge and applications on the other. However it would be premature to generalize this to the neurosciences at large, whose knowledge-producing, innovative, and economic potentials have just recently been confirmed by political and scientific decision-makers with the financial support for the Human Brain Project and the BRAIN Initiative. Finally, I discuss two explanations for the analyzed communication patterns and argue why Critical Neuroscience is necessary, but not sufficient. A more general Critical Science movement is required to improve the scientific incentive system.

Extending the mind: a review of ethnographies of neuroscience practice

Mahfoud, Tara
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/06/2014 EN
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This paper reviews ethnographies of neuroscience laboratories in the United States and Europe, organizing them into three main sections: (1) descriptions of the capabilities and limitations of technologies used in neuroimaging laboratories to map “activity” or “function” onto structural models of the brain; (2) discussions of the “distributed” or “extended” mind in neuroscience practice; and (3) the implications of neuroscience research and the power of brain images outside the laboratory. I will try to show the importance of ethnographic work in such settings, and place this body of ethnographic work within its historical framework—such ethnographies largely emerged within the Decade of the Brain, as announced by former President of the United States George H. W. Bush in 1990. The main argument is that neuroscience research and the context within which it is taking place has changed since the 1990’s—specifically with the launch of “big science” projects such as the Human Brain Project (HBP) in the European Union and the BRAIN initiative in the United States. There is an opportunity for more research into the institutional and politico-economic context within which neuroscience research is taking place, and for continued engagement between the social and biological sciences.

Consumer Neuroscience as a reserach issue, concepts and applications. A paradigmatic approach; La neurociencia del consumidor como horizonte de investigación, conceptos y aplicaciones. Un enfoque paradigmático; A neurociência do consumidor como horizonte de pesquisa: conceptos e aplicações. Um enfoque paradigmático

Salazar, César
Fonte: Universidade do Rosário Publicador: Universidade do Rosário
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/12/2012 SPA
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Consumer neuroscience allows a fullest and objective understanding about desires andactions of consumers, turning itself in a fickle tool to the use of the companies and to improve their Marketing strategies. The use of the Neuroscientific methods to the analysis, description and comprehension of human behavior related to consume open a lot of unknown possibilities to discover. Neuromarketing or The consumer Neuroscience as is known too is the study of mental process been part of the consumer behavior and contexts concerning the marketing as well, apply and follow in the environment of the real life of human been. Its supported by the paradigms and the technological development of Neurosciences whose progress has made possible for the seekers to deep in knowledge abouthow the brain work. Physiological operations of mind are a product of a structural and functional ensemble including the brain, as organ, and mind, emotion and cognition, asfunctions. Mind events just can be understood in the middle of the interaction between the organism and his environment. Neuromarketing paradigm it’s still in his infancy and whatfor it’s full of research possibilities. Inside the consumer neuroscience the ethic building doesn’t collapse, the morality isn’t threaten...

A Neuron Doctrine in the Philosophy of Neuroscience

Gold, I; Stoljar, Daniel
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Many neuroscientists and philosophers endorse a view about the explanatory reach of neuroscience (which we will call the neuron doctrine) to the effect that the framework for understanding the mind will be developed by neuroscience; or, as we will put it, that a successful theory of the mind will be solely neuroscientific. It is a consequence of this view that the sciences of the mind that cannot be expressed by means of neuroscientific concepts alone count as indirect sciences that will be discarded as neuroscience matures. This consequence is what makes the doctrine substantive, indeed, radical. We ask, first, what the neuron doctrine means and, second, whether it is true. In answer to the first question, we distinguish two versions of the doctrine. One version, the trivial neuron doctrine, turns out to be uncontroversial but unsubstantive because it fails to have the consequence that the nonneuroscientific sciences of the mind will eventually be discarded. A second version, the radical neuron doctrine, does have this consequence, but, unlike the first doctrine, is highly controversial. We argue that the neuron doctrine appears to be both substantive and uncontroversial only as a result of a conflation of these two versions. We then consider whether the radical doctrine is true. We present and evaluate three arguments for it...

Neuroscience of Ethics: The State of Art and the Promises for the Future

Nahra, Cinara
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/12/2011 POR
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2011v10n1p109It is widely known that neuroscience research can lead humankind to understand and combat many illnesses or conditions that cause untold suffering around the world such as dementia, Alzheimer’s, depression or stress and can also lead us to achieve considerable improvements in memory, learning abilities, executive functions, moods and in many others areas related to cognition and emotion. In this article I will be focusing specifically on the research related to the neuroscience of ethics. The neuroscience of ethics is an area of neuroethics that is concerned with the understanding of the brains mechanism that are involved in moral cognition and in our ethical (or anti-ethical) decisions, and I propose here to expand this concept a little further, defining neuroscience of ethics as the field concerned to the understanding of the brain mechanisms of all main behaviours related to ethics and morality. In this article I identify a set of neuroscience studies that have been published in the last 10 years and that are relevant for ethics, shedding light on behaviours such as altruism, generosity, selfconfidence, trust , altruistic punishment, violence, lying and prejudice, all of them connected somehow to morality. I then discuss how the understanding of each one of these behaviours can benefit society and how we can use this research to help humankind to improve moral standards and promote general happiness.

Explanation in Neuroscience: a critical analysis of multinivelar mechanistic-causal model of Carl Craver; Explicação em Neurociência: uma análise crítica do modelo mecanístico-causal multinivelar de Carl Craver

Costa, Ana Luísa Lamounier; Universidade de Brasília Brasília, UnB; Simon, Samuel; Universidade de Brasília Brasília, UnB.
Fonte: Federal University of Santa Catarina – UFSC Publicador: Federal University of Santa Catarina – UFSC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/04/2015 POR
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2015v19n1p17The most expressive account of explanations in neuroscience is currently the causal-mechanistic model (MMM model) formulated by Carl Craver. According to him, explanations in neuroscience describe mechanisms, in other words, it points out how parts organize themselves and interact to engender the phenomenon. Furthermore, neuroscience is unified as scientists from different areas that compose it work together to develop mechanisms. This model was extensively discussed in the last years and several criticisms were raised towards it. Still, it remains as the soundest model for explanations in neuroscience nowadays. This paper is presented as a review of this model, as well as the critiques worked out against it and finishes with a brief consideration of the problem of explanation in neuroscience.; http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2015v19n1p17A abordagem mais significativa das explicações em neurociência é atualmente o modelo causal-mecanicista (modelo MMM) formulado por Carl Craver. Segundo ele as explicações em neurociência descrevem mecanismos, em outras palavras, ele indica como as partes interagem e se organizam para gerar o fenômeno. Além disso, a neurociência é unificada à medida em quem os cientistas de diferentes áreas que a compõem trabalham juntos para desenvolver os mecanismos. Este modelo foi amplamente discutido nos últimos anos e várias críticas foram levantadas contra ele. Ainda assim...