Últimos itens adicionados do Acervo: Harvard University

A Universidade de Harvard (em inglês: Harvard University) é uma universidade privada membro da Ivy League, localizada em Cambridge, Massachusetts, Estados Unidos, e cuja história, influência e riqueza tornam-a uma das mais prestigiadas universidades do mundo.

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Carbophobia: The Dieting Public's Obsession with Carbohydrates and the U.S. Government's Response

Berry, Jeremy
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Paper (for course/seminar/workshop)
EN_US
This paper examines the recent low-carbohydrate diet craze, and analyzes the reaction of the United States government to new scientific evidence potentially indicating that the government’s current food recommendations may actually be contributing to the obesity epidemic in America. After a brief introduction, the paper examines the history of food science, focusing on the government’s efforts to develop the food recommendations now in the Food Guide Pyramid, as well as recent studies indicating that other diets may be more effective for weight loss and cardiovascular health. The paper then discusses the generally-accepted science of what constitutes the various macronutrients, as well as how carbohydrates are processed by the human body. Next, four of the most popular diets in America today are analyzed, including their recommendations and the science, sometimes controversial, behind these diet recommendations. The four diets analyzed are a low-fat diet, a low-carbohydrate diet such as the Atkins Diet, a mixed diet such as the Zone Diet, and the SugarBusters Diet and other low-glycemic index diets. The science background concludes by noting where the science seems to be converging, despite vast differences of opinion amongst the various diet advocates. Next...

The Expansion of FDA's Enforcement Powers from 1906-2003

Karuga, Catherine
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Paper (for course/seminar/workshop)
EN_US
This paper discusses the history of the FDA with a focus on the expansion of FDA regulatory powers.

Reconsidering Caffeine: An Awake and Alert New Look at America's Most Commonly Consumed Drug

Mrazik, David M.
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Paper (for course/seminar/workshop)
EN_US
Caffeine is one of the most pervasively ingested addictive substances in the United States, yet astoundingly little attention is paid to its ubiquitous presence. This Paper examines caffeine, the substance, from many perspectives. First, it discusses caffeine with particular regard to its chemical properties; its presence in foods, beverages, and medications both naturally and as an additive; and its known impacts on human biological and psychological functioning. Relevant medical investigations of caffeine’s therapeutic properties and its toxicology are included in order to better evaluate the benefits, the risks, and the relative safety of prolonged caffeine consumption. In light of more recent medical findings, the Paper finds that caffeine poses fewer serious health risks than previously thought, and the potential for damage to the vast majority of the consumer public is minimal. The Paper also addresses issues of FDA regulation of caffeine, including a discussion of current regulation and classification of the substance both as a food product and as a drug product, as well as questioning the usefulness of greater consumer warning labels and promotion of improved public awareness of caffeine’s various health effects. Due to both the paucity of long-term caffeine health studies and the conflicts among those studies...

An Evaluation of the Legal Responses to America's Obesity Epidemic

Westover, Melanie
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Paper (for course/seminar/workshop)
EN_US
This paper will examine the recent legal action surrounding one of America's major public health problems; obesity. The discussion begins with a quick presentation of information regarding our nation's obesity epidemic. The discussion will then turn to the recent obesity litigation and proposed legislation. The paper will analyze the strength and shortcomings of the Pelman plaintiffs & arguments against the McDonald's Corporation. Further, the paper will analyze the court's responses to these arguments in an attempt to hypothesize on future litigation. The paper will then turn its focus to proposed bill H.R. 339, The Personal Responsibility in Food Consumption Act, which prohibits obesity lawsuits against members of the food industry. The discussion will analyze the political arguments surrounding obesity and obesity lawsuits. Finally, the discussion will suggest that analysis of the Pelman opinions and Congressional testimony on H.R. 339 indicate that obesity lawsuits, if allowed to continue, could be developed to the point of creating a legal response similar to that which accompanied tobacco litigation.

Association of Medical Students' Reports of Interactions with the Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Industries and Medical School Policies and Characteristics: A Cross-Sectional Study

Yeh, James S.; Austad, Kirsten E.; Franklin, Jessica M.; Chimonas, Susan; Campbell, Eric G.; Avorn, Jerry; Kesselheim, Aaron S.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Background: Professional societies use metrics to evaluate medical schools' policies regarding interactions of students and faculty with the pharmaceutical and medical device industries. We compared these metrics and determined which US medical schools' industry interaction policies were associated with student behaviors. Methods and Findings: Using survey responses from a national sample of 1,610 US medical students, we compared their reported industry interactions with their schools' American Medical Student Association (AMSA) PharmFree Scorecard and average Institute on Medicine as a Profession (IMAP) Conflicts of Interest Policy Database score. We used hierarchical logistic regression models to determine the association between policies and students' gift acceptance, interactions with marketing representatives, and perceived adequacy of faculty–industry separation. We adjusted for year in training, medical school size, and level of US National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding. We used LASSO regression models to identify specific policies associated with the outcomes. We found that IMAP and AMSA scores had similar median values (1.75 [interquartile range 1.50–2.00] versus 1.77 [1.50–2.18], adjusted to compare scores on the same scale). Scores on AMSA and IMAP shared policy dimensions were not closely correlated (gift policies...

The Impact of Course Title and Instructor Gender on Student Perceptions and Interest in a Women's and Gender Studies Course

Spoor, Jennifer R.; Lehmiller, Justin J.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Diversity awareness has enormous benefits, and universities in the United States increasingly require students to complete diversity-related courses. Prior research has demonstrated that students' initial attitudes toward these courses affect their subsequent engagement, as well as the quality of their learning experience; however, very little research has examined how these initial attitudes are formed. We conducted an experiment to examine this issue in the context of a women's and gender studies course in psychology. Participants read one of two identical course descriptions that varied only the course title (i.e., Psychology of Gender versus Psychology of Women) and instructor gender. Participants perceived a women-titled course to be narrowly focused compared to an identical gender-titled course and were more interested in taking the gender-titled course. Instructor gender had no effects on any of the variables. Additionally, female participants had more positive attitudes toward the course than male participants, regardless of title. Exploratory mediation analyses indicated that the main effects of course title and participant gender were mediated by perceptions of course content. Implications for improving student experiences and interest in diversity-related courses are discussed.

You want me to analyze data I don't have? Are you insane?

Meng, Xiao-Li
Fonte: Editorial Department of the Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry Publicador: Editorial Department of the Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US

Network Analysis Identifies SOD2 mRNA as a Potential Biomarker for Parkinson's Disease

Santiago, Jose A.; Scherzer, Clemens R.; Potashkin, Judith A.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Increasing evidence indicates that Parkinson's disease (PD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) share dysregulated molecular networks. We identified 84 genes shared between PD and T2DM from curated disease-gene databases. Nitric oxide biosynthesis, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, insulin secretion and inflammation were identified as common dysregulated pathways. A network prioritization approach was implemented to rank genes according to their distance to seed genes and their involvement in common biological pathways. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays revealed that a highly ranked gene, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), is upregulated in PD patients compared to healthy controls in 192 whole blood samples from two independent clinical trials, the Harvard Biomarker Study (HBS) and the Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers in Parkinson's disease (PROBE). The results from this study reinforce the idea that shared molecular networks between PD and T2DM provides an additional source of biologically meaningful biomarkers. Evaluation of this biomarker in de novo PD patients and in a larger prospective longitudinal study is warranted.

Propagation of tau pathology in Alzheimer’s disease: identification of novel therapeutic targets

Pooler, Amy M; Polydoro, Manuela; Wegmann, Susanne; Nicholls, Samantha B; Spires-Jones, Tara L; Hyman, Bradley T
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Accumulation and aggregation of the microtubule-associated protein tau are a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In AD, tau becomes abnormally phosphorylated and forms inclusions throughout the brain, starting in the entorhinal cortex and progressively affecting additional brain regions as the disease progresses. Formation of these inclusions is thought to lead to synapse loss and cell death. Tau is also found in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and elevated levels are a biomarker for AD. Until recently, it was thought that the presence of tau in the CSF was due to the passive release of aggregated tau from dead or dying tangle-bearing neurons. However, accumulating evidence from different AD model systems suggests that tau is actively secreted and transferred between synaptically connected neurons. Transgenic mouse lines with localized expression of aggregating human tau in the entorhinal cortex have demonstrated that, as these animals age, tau becomes mislocalized from axons to cell bodies and dendrites and that human tau-positive aggregates form first in the entorhinal cortex and later in downstream projection targets. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have provided insight into the mechanisms by which tau may be released and internalized by neurons and have started to provide insight into how tau pathology may spread in AD. In this review...

A new mental health law to protect patients' autonomy could lead to drastic changes in the delivery of mental health services: is the risk too high to take?

Yeung, Albert
Fonte: Editorial Department of the Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry Publicador: Editorial Department of the Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US

The Legacy of 'Two Dogmas'

Elgin, Catherine Z.
Fonte: University of Illinois Press Publicador: University of Illinois Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
W. V. Quine is famous, or perhaps infamous, for his repudiation of the analytic/synthetic distinction and kindred dualisms—the necessary/contingent dichotomy and the a priori/a posteriori dichotomy. As these dualisms have come back into vogue in recent years, it might seem that the denial of the dualisms is no part of Quine's enduring legacy. Such a conclusion is unwarranted—not only because the dualisms are deeply problematic, but because "Two Dogmas of Empiricism" haunts even those who want to retain them. "Two Dogmas" reconfigured the philosophical terrain and issued a challenge to philosophy's self understanding—a challenge that has yet to be fully met. The commitment to the analytic/synthetic distinction derives from the recognition that the truth of any sentence depends on two things: the way the world is and what the sentence means. It seems natural, then, that each sentence should be subject to a sort of factor analysis that disentangles the contribution of language to its truth value from the contribution of the world. Just how much each contributes varies from one sentence to the next. When the contribution of the world goes to zero, the sentence is analytic.; Other Research Unit

The Downside of Judicial Restraint: The (Non-)Effect of Jones v. Harris

Coates, John
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US

A Comment on Peter Cicchino's "Defending Humanity"

Kennedy, Randall Leroy
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US

Characterizing Pseudoentropy and Simplifying Pseudorandom Generator Constructions

Vadhan, Salil P.; Zheng, Colin Jia
Fonte: ACM Press Publicador: ACM Press
Tipo: Conference Paper
EN_US
We provide a characterization of pseudoentropy in terms of hardness of sampling: Let (X,B) be jointly distributed random variables such that B takes values in a polynomial-sized set. We show that B is computationally indistinguishable from a random variable of higher Shannon entropy given X if and only if there is no probabilistic polynomial-time S such that (X,S(X)) has small KL divergence from (X,B). This can be viewed as an analogue of the Impagliazzo Hardcore Theorem (FOCS '95) for Shannon entropy (rather than min-entropy). Using this characterization, we show that if f is a one-way function, then (f(Un),Un) has "next-bit pseudoentropy" at least n+log n, establishing a conjecture of Haitner, Reingold, and Vadhan (STOC '10). Plugging this into the construction of Haitner et al., this yields a simpler construction of pseudorandom generators from one-way functions. In particular, the construction only performs hashing once, and only needs the hash functions that are randomness extractors (e.g. universal hash functions) rather than needing them to support "local list-decoding" (as in the Goldreich--Levin hardcore predicate, STOC '89). With an additional idea, we also show how to improve the seed length of the pseudorandom generator to ~{O}(n3)...

The Nature of Coasean Property

Lee, Brian Angelo; Smith, Henry Edward
Fonte: Springer Science + Business Media Publicador: Springer Science + Business Media
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
The Coase Theorem is widely regarded as pointing to the importance of positive transaction costs for the analysis of economic institutions. Various interpretations of the Coase Theorem regard transaction costs as some set of impediments to contracting, or more broadly, as the costs of providing institutional solutions to conflicts over resource use. The abstract nature of the Coasean hypothetical tends to promote an abstract notion of property as a thin entitlement: a right in a designated person to take certain actions or derive value from a set of resource attributes. On this view, property is like a collection of tiny contracts. The property rights furnished by actual property law are much more coarse grained than this, and property is correspondingly “incomplete” for transaction costs reasons. Property and contract are substitutes in some situations, but they often are not interchangeable—because of Coasean transaction costs.

Democracy and Judicial Review, Will and Reason, Amendment and Interpretation: A Review of Barry Friedman's the Will of the People

Jackson, Vicki C.
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US

Comments on Gedicks and Ball

Tushnet, Mark V.
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US

The Optimist's Tale

Tushnet, Mark V.
Fonte: University of Pennsylvania Publicador: University of Pennsylvania
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US

The Charter's Influence Around the World

Tushnet, Mark V.
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Over the past several decades, the influence of the United States Constitution and Supreme Court around the world has waned while that of the Canadian Charter and Supreme Court has increased. This article examines several reasons for these changes, including: the relative ages of the constitutions; the US Supreme Court’s recent conservatism; the Canadian Supreme Court’s role in developing the doctrine of proportionality; the US Supreme Court’s interest in originalism; differing structures of constitutional review and judicial supremacy; and the two Courts’ relative openness to transnational influences.

Precise Enforcement of Progress-Sensitive Security

Moore, Scott David; Askarov, Aslan; Chong, Stephen N
Fonte: ACM Press Publicador: ACM Press
Tipo: Conference Paper
EN_US
Program progress (or termination) is a covert channel that may leak sensitive information. To control information leakage on this channel, semantic definitions of security should be progress sensitive and enforcement mechanisms should restrict the channel's capacity. However, most state-of-the-art language-based information-flow mechanisms are progress insensitive---allowing arbitrary information leakage through this channel---and current progress-sensitive enforcement techniques are overly restrictive. We propose a type system and instrumented semantics that together enforce progress-sensitive security more precisely than existing approaches. Our system is permissive in that it is able to accept programs in which the termination behavior depends only on low-security (e.g., public or trusted) information. Our system is parameterized on a termination oracle, and controls the progress channel precisely, modulo the ability of the oracle to determine the termination behavior of a program based on low-security information. We have instantiated the oracle for a simple imperative language with a logical abstract interpretation that uses an SMT solver to synthesize linear rank functions. In addition, we extend the system to permit controlled leakage through the progress channel...