Últimos itens adicionados do Acervo: Harvard University

A Universidade de Harvard (em inglês: Harvard University) é uma universidade privada membro da Ivy League, localizada em Cambridge, Massachusetts, Estados Unidos, e cuja história, influência e riqueza tornam-a uma das mais prestigiadas universidades do mundo.

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Surgeons' Volume-Outcome Relationship for Lobectomies and Wedge Resections for Cancer Using Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Techniques

David, Guy; Gunnarsson, Candace L.; Moore, Matt; Howington, John; Maddaus, Michael A.; Meyers, Bryan F.; Miller, Daniel L.; McKenna, Robert; Swanson, Scott James
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
This study examined the effect of surgeons' volume on outcomes in lung surgery: lobectomies and wedge resections. Additionally, the effect of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) on cost, utilization, and adverse events was analyzed. The Premier Hospital Database was the data source for this analysis. Eligible patients were those of any age undergoing lobectomy or wedge resection using VATS for cancer treatment. Volume was represented by the aggregate experience level of the surgeon in a six-month window before each surgery. A positive volume-outcome relationship was found with some notable features. The relationship is stronger for cost and utilization outcomes than for adverse events; for thoracic surgeons as opposed to other surgeons; for VATS lobectomies rather than VATS wedge resections. While there was a reduction in cost and resource utilization with greater experience in VATS, these outcomes were not associated with greater experience in open procedures.

Ratification by the United States of the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Pros and Cons from a Child's Rights Perspective

Bartholet, Elizabeth
Fonte: Sage in association with the American Academy of Political and Social Science Publicador: Sage in association with the American Academy of Political and Social Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
This article discusses the significance of the United States ratification of the CRC, concluding that even if the treaty is not self-executing, ratification would make a major difference. It would enable the United States to better promote children’s rights abroad, and it would push the United States to develop its domestic law in dramatically new directions that empower children. The CRC provides children with powerful affirmative rights and imposes reciprocal duties on nation-states. It provides rights to participate, including rights to be heard and to make decisions on personal and political matters; rights to receive important benefits, including health, support, and education; rights to protection against maltreatment; and rights to nurturing parental care. All this contrasts with U.S. law’s negative rights tradition, its emphasis on parental rights, limited recognition of children’s rights, and related restriction of state power to protect children. U.S. ratification could have a positive impact, particularly in connection with parental relationship rights and related maltreatment issues. However, there is also a risk of negative impact, given the problematic CRC provisions on international and transracial adoption. The solution is ratification with a reservation regarding Articles 20 and 21.

MRI-based visual and haptic catheter feedback: simulating a novel system's contribution to efficient and safe MRI-guided cardiac electrophysiology procedures

Kwok, Ka-Wai; Chen, Yue; Chau, Thomas CP; Luk, Wayne; Nilsson, Kent Ronald; Schmidt, Ehud J; Tse, Zion T
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US

Galaxy clusters discovered via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in the first 720 square degrees of the South Pole Telescope survey

Reichardt, C. L.; Stalder, B.; Bleem, L. E.; Montroy, T. E.; Aird, K. A.; Andersson, K.; Armstrong, R.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bautz, M.; Bayliss, Matthew; Bazin, G.; Benson, B. A.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Cho, H. M.; Clocchiatti, A.; Crawf
Fonte: American Astronomical Society Publicador: American Astronomical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
We present a catalog of galaxy cluster candidates, selected through their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect signature in the first 720 deg2 of the South Pole Telescope (SPT) survey. This area was mapped with the SPT in the 2008 and 2009 austral winters to a depth of ~18 μKCMB-arcmin at 150 GHz; 550 deg2 of it was also mapped to ~44 μKCMB-arcmin at 95 GHz. Based on optical imaging of all 224 candidates and near-infrared imaging of the majority of candidates, we have found optical and/or infrared counterparts for 158, which we then classify as confirmed galaxy clusters. Of these 158 clusters, 135 were first identified as clusters in SPT data, including 117 new discoveries reported in this work. This catalog triples the number of confirmed galaxy clusters discovered through the SZ effect. We report photometrically derived (and in some cases spectroscopic) redshifts for confirmed clusters and redshift lower limits for the remaining candidates. The catalog extends to high redshift with a median redshift of z = 0.55 and maximum confirmed redshift of z = 1.37. Forty-five of the clusters have counterparts in the ROSAT bright or faint source catalogs from which we estimate X-ray fluxes. Based on simulations, we expect the catalog to be nearly 100% complete above M 500 ≈ 5 × 1014 M ☉ h –1 70 at z gsim 0.6. There are 121 candidates detected at signal-to-noise ratio greater than five...

Cosmological Constraints from Sunyaev-Zel'dovich-selected Clusters with X-Ray Observations in the First 178 deg2 of the South Pole Telescope Survey

Benson, B. A.; de Haan, T.; Dudley, J. P.; Reichardt, C. L.; Aird, K. A.; Andersson, K.; Armstrong, R.; Ashby, Matthew L N; Bautz, M.; Bayliss, Matthew; Bazin, G.; Bleem, L. E.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Cho, H. M.; Clocchiatti, A.; Cra
Fonte: American Astronomical Society Publicador: American Astronomical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
We use measurements from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) cluster survey in combination with X-ray measurements to constrain cosmological parameters. We present a statistical method that fits for the scaling relations of the SZ and X-ray cluster observables with mass while jointly fitting for cosmology. The method is generalizable to multiple cluster observables, and self-consistently accounts for the effects of the cluster selection and uncertainties in cluster mass calibration on the derived cosmological constraints. We apply this method to a data set consisting of an SZ-selected catalog of 18 galaxy clusters at z > 0.3 from the first 178 deg2 of the 2500 deg2 SPT-SZ survey, with 14 clusters having X-ray observations from either Chandra or XMM-Newton. Assuming a spatially flat ΛCDM cosmological model, we find the SPT cluster sample constrains σ8(Ω m /0.25)0.30 = 0.785 ± 0.037. In combination with measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum from the SPT and the seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data, the SPT cluster sample constrains σ8 = 0.795 ± 0.016 and Ω m = 0.255 ± 0.016, a factor of 1.5 improvement on each parameter over the CMB data alone. We consider several extensions beyond the ΛCDM model by including the following as free parameters: the dark energy equation of state (w)...

SPT-CL J0205–5829: A z = 1.32 Evolved Massive Galaxy Cluster in the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect Survey

Stalder, Brian A; Ruel, Jonathan; Šuhada, R.; Brodwin, M.; Aird, K. A.; Andersson, K.; Armstrong, R.; Ashby, Matthew L N; Bautz, M.; Bayliss, Matthew; Bazin, G.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Cho, H. M.; Clocchiatti, A.; Cr
Fonte: American Astronomical Society / IOP Publishing Publicador: American Astronomical Society / IOP Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
The galaxy cluster SPT-CL J0205–5829 currently has the highest spectroscopically confirmed redshift, z = 1.322, in the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SPT-SZ) survey. XMM-Newton observations measure a core-excluded temperature of TX = 8.7+1.0 –0.8 keV producing a mass estimate that is consistent with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich-derived mass. The combined SZ and X-ray mass estimate of M 500 = (4.8 ± 0.8) × 1014 h –1 70 M ☉ makes it the most massive known SZ-selected galaxy cluster at z > 1.2 and the second most massive at z > 1. Using optical and infrared observations, we find that the brightest galaxies in SPT-CL J0205–5829 are already well evolved by the time the universe was <5 Gyr old, with stellar population ages >≈ Gyr, and low rates of star formation (<0.5 M ☉ yr–1). We find that, despite the high redshift and mass, the existence of SPT-CL J0205–5829 is not surprising given a flat ΛCDM cosmology with Gaussian initial perturbations. The a priori chance of finding a cluster of similar rarity (or rarer) in a survey the size of the 2500 deg2 SPT-SZ survey is 69%.

Sidney's Two Roads to Arcadia: Romance and the Narrative of Experience

Lee, Christine S
Fonte: The Sidney Society Publicador: The Sidney Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Literature and Comparative Literature

History's Changing Climate: Climate Science, Genomics, and the Emerging Consilient Approach to Interdisciplinary History

McCormick, Michael
Fonte: MIT Press Publicador: MIT Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Consilience refers to the quality of investigations that draw conclusions from forms of evidence that are epistemologically distinct. The term seems particularly apt for conclusions produced by natural-scientific investigations on the one hand and by historical and archaeological studies on the other. Consilience points to areas of underlying unity of humanistic and scientific investigation— a unity arising from that of reality itself; it represents a convergence in parallel but independent investigations that results in deductions that are much more robust than any investigation would be able to produce on its own.; History

A Review of Douglass C. North, John Joseph Wallis, and Barry R. Weingast's Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History

Bates, Robert H.
Fonte: American Economic Association Publicador: American Economic Association
Tipo: Commentary or Review
EN_US
In Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History, Douglass C. North, John Joseph Wallis, and Barry R. Weingast probe the organizational foundations of development. Outlining the properties of the "natural" and "open entry" societies, they highlight as well the conditions under which societies can move from one to the other, thereby achieving political order and economic prosperity.; African and African American Studies; Government

You Can't Check Email. ('Book Was There: Reading in Electronic Times' and 'From Codex to Hypertext: Reading at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century')

Price, Leah
Fonte: Times Literary Supplement Publicador: Times Literary Supplement
Tipo: Commentary or Review
EN_US
English and American Literature and Language

Genome-Wide Association Meta-analysis of Neuropathologic Features of Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias

Beecham, Gary W.; Hamilton, Kara; Naj, Adam C.; Martin, Eden R.; Huentelman, Matt; Myers, Amanda J.; Corneveaux, Jason J.; Hardy, John; Vonsattel, Jean-Paul; Younkin, Steven G.; Bennett, David A.; De Jager, Philip L.; Larson, Eric B.; Crane, Paul K.; Kamb
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias are a major public health challenge and present a therapeutic imperative for which we need additional insight into molecular pathogenesis. We performed a genome-wide association study and analysis of known genetic risk loci for AD dementia using neuropathologic data from 4,914 brain autopsies. Neuropathologic data were used to define clinico-pathologic AD dementia or controls, assess core neuropathologic features of AD (neuritic plaques, NPs; neurofibrillary tangles, NFTs), and evaluate commonly co-morbid neuropathologic changes: cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), Lewy body disease (LBD), hippocampal sclerosis of the elderly (HS), and vascular brain injury (VBI). Genome-wide significance was observed for clinico-pathologic AD dementia, NPs, NFTs, CAA, and LBD with a number of variants in and around the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE). GalNAc transferase 7 (GALNT7), ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family G (WHITE), Member 1 (ABCG1), and an intergenic region on chromosome 9 were associated with NP score; and Potassium Large Conductance Calcium-Activated Channel, Subfamily M, Beta Member 2 (KCNMB2) was strongly associated with HS. Twelve of the 21 non-APOE genetic risk loci for clinically-defined AD dementia were confirmed in our clinico-pathologic sample: CR1...

Quantifying the Reconfiguration of Intrinsic Networks during Working Memory

Cohen, Jessica R.; Gallen, Courtney L.; Jacobs, Emily G.; Lee, Taraz G.; D'Esposito, Mark
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Rapid, flexible reconfiguration of connections across brain regions is thought to underlie successful cognitive control. Two intrinsic networks in particular, the cingulo-opercular (CO) and fronto-parietal (FP), are thought to underlie two operations critical for cognitive control: task-set maintenance/tonic alertness and adaptive, trial-by-trial updating. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we directly tested whether the functional connectivity of the CO and FP networks was related to cognitive demands and behavior. We focused on working memory because of evidence that during working memory tasks the entire brain becomes more integrated. When specifically probing the CO and FP cognitive control networks, we found that individual regions of both intrinsic networks were active during working memory and, as expected, integration across the two networks increased during task blocks that required cognitive control. Crucially, increased integration between each of the cognitive control networks and a task-related, non-cognitive control network (the hand somatosensory-motor network; SM) was related to increased accuracy. This implies that dynamic reconfiguration of the CO and FP networks so as to increase their inter-network communication underlies successful working memory.

Fetal hormonal programming of sex differences in depression: linking women's mental health with sex differences in the brain across the lifespan

Goldstein, Jill M.; Holsen, Laura; Handa, Robert; Tobet, Stuart
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US

How Does Simplified Disclosure Affect Individuals' Mutual Fund Choices?

Laibson, David I.; Beshears, John; Choi, James J.; Madrian, Brigitte
Fonte: National Bureau of Economic Research Publicador: National Bureau of Economic Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
We use an experiment to estimate the effect of the SEC’s Summary Prospectus, which simplifies mutual fund disclosure. Our subjects chose an equity portfolio and a bond portfolio. Subjects received either statutory prospectuses or Summary Prospectuses. We find no evidence that the Summary Prospectus affects portfolio choices. Our experiment sheds new light on the scope of investor confusion about sales loads. Even with a one-month investment horizon, subjects do not avoid loads. Subjects are either confused about loads, overlook them, or believe their chosen portfolio has an annualized log return that is 24 percentage points higher than the load-minimizing portfolio.; Economics

Irish Literature: Saga

O Cathasaigh, Tomas
Fonte: Charles Scribner's Sons Publicador: Charles Scribner's Sons
Tipo: Outros
EN_US
Celtic Languages and Literatures

Long-Term Threats to Canada's James Bay from Hydro-Electrical Development

Beyea, Jan; Klein-Rosenthal, Joyce Ellen; Hansell, Jennifer
Fonte: Arctic Institute of North America Publicador: Arctic Institute of North America
Tipo: Newspaper or Magazine article
EN_US

Urban Heat Island Mitigation Can Improve New York City's Environment: Research on the Impacts of Mitigation Strategies on the Urban Environment

Klein-Rosenthal, Joyce Ellen; Crauderueff, Rob; Carter, Majora
Fonte: Sustainable South Bronx Publicador: Sustainable South Bronx
Tipo: Research Paper or Report
EN_US

'Last-place Aversion': Evidence and Redistributive Implications

Kuziemko, Ilyana; Buell, Ryan Williams; Reich, Taly; Norton, Michael Irwin
Fonte: Oxford University Press (OUP) Publicador: Oxford University Press (OUP)
EN_US
We present evidence from laboratory experiments showing that individuals are "last-place averse." Participants choose gambles with the potential to move them out of last place that they reject when randomly placed in other parts of the distribution. In modified-dictator games, participants randomly placed in second-to-last place are the most likely to give money to the person one rank above them instead of the person one rank below. Last-place aversion suggests that low-income individuals might oppose redistribution because it could differentially help the group just beneath them. Using survey data, we show that individuals making just above the minimum wage are the most likely to oppose its increase. Similarly, in the General Social Survey, those above poverty but below median income support redistribution significantly less than their background characteristics would predict.

Single cell imaging of Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase using an irreversible inhibitor

Turetsky, Anna; Kim, Eunha; Kohler, Rainer H.; Miller, Miles A.; Weissleder, Ralph
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
A number of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors are currently in development, yet it has been difficult to visualize BTK expression and pharmacological inhibition in vivo in real time. We synthesized a fluorescent, irreversible BTK binder based on the drug Ibrutinib and characterized its behavior in cells and in vivo. We show a 200 nM affinity of the imaging agent, high selectivity, and irreversible binding to its target following initial washout, resulting in surprisingly high target-to-background ratios. In vivo, the imaging agent rapidly distributed to BTK expressing tumor cells, but also to BTK-positive tumor-associated host cells.

A Single Institution's Overweight Pediatric Population and Their Associated Comorbid Conditions

Bairdain, Sigrid; Lien, Chueh; Stoffan, Alexander P.; Troy, Michael; Simonson, Donald C.; Linden, Bradley C.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Background:. Obesity studies are often performed on population data. We sought to examine the incidence of obesity and its associated comorbidities in a single freestanding children's hospital. Methods:. We performed a retrospective analysis of all visits to Boston Children's Hospital from 2000 to 2012. This was conducted to determine the incidence of obesity, morbid obesity, and associated comorbidities. Each comorbidity was modeled independently. Incidence rate ratios were calculated, as well as odds ratios. Results:. A retrospective review of 3,185,658 person-years in nonobese, 26,404 person-years in obese, and 25,819 person-years in the morbidly obese was conducted. Annual rates of all major comorbidities were increased in all patients, as well as in our obese and morbidly obese counterparts. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and odds ratios (OR) were also significantly increased across all conditions for both our obese and morbidly obese patients. Conclusions:. These data illustrate the substantial increases in obesity and associated comorbid conditions. Study limitations include (1) single institution data, (2) retrospective design, and (3) administrative undercoding. Future treatment options need to address these threats to longevity and quality of life.