A experiência vincular, entre o cuidador primário (mãe) e o bebê, no início da vida pós-natal, constitui o contexto da neurogênese, de acordo com os estudos realizados pela Neurociência do Desenvolvimento; e o fundamento do desenvolvimento emocional segundo a teoria do psicanalista Donald W. Winnicott. O objetivo desta pesquisa é aproximar as construções teóricas de autores que estudam diferentes aspectos de uma mesma realidade: as implicações da experiência vincular entre o bebê e o cuidador primário (mãe), que acontecem nas etapas iniciais do desenvolvimento humano, no processo de inter-relação psique-soma considerada a base do desenvolvimento emocional do ser humano. Essas construções pertencem a uma linha de pesquisa em neurociência do desenvolvimento e outra em psicanálise, representada pela teoria de Donald W. Winnicott, sobre os primórdios do desenvolvimento. Considerando-se que o presente trabalho é um estudo teórico-reflexivo, foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica. As conclusões têm o objetivo de fundamentar um conhecimento que possa ampliar a compreensão dos fatores que interferem no desenvolvimento do ser humano, no início da vida pós-natal, que podem ser responsáveis pelo aparecimento de psicopatologias em etapas futuras do ciclo vital. Enfatizam a necessidade do desenvolvimento de estratégias de intervenção precoce na relação mãe-bebê...
PsychoPy is a software library written in Python, using OpenGL to generate very precise visual stimuli on standard personal computers. It is designed to allow the construction of as wide a variety of neuroscience experiments as possible, with the least effort. By writing scripts in standard Python syntax users can generate an enormous variety of visual and auditory stimuli and can interact with a wide range of external hardware (enabling its use in fMRI, EEG, MEG etc.). The structure of scripts is simple and intuitive. As a result, new experiments can be written very quickly, and trying to understand a previously written script is easy, even with minimal code comments. PsychoPy can also generate movies and image sequences to be used in demos or simulated neuroscience experiments. This paper describes the range of tools and stimuli that it provides and the environment in which experiments are conducted.
This overview describes the goals and objectives of the third conference conducted as part of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) initiative. This third conference was focused on selecting specific paradigms from cognitive neuroscience that measured the constructs identified in the first CNTRICS meeting, with the goal of facilitating the translation of these paradigms into use in clinical trials contexts. To identify such paradigms, we had an open nomination process in which the field was asked to nominate potentially relevant paradigms and to provide information on several domains relevant to selecting the most promising tasks for each construct (eg, construct validity, neural bases, psychometrics, availability of animal models). Our goal was to identify 1–2 promising tasks for each of the 11 constructs identified at the first CNTRICS meeting. In this overview article, we describe the on-line survey used to generate nominations for promising tasks, the criteria that were used to select the tasks, the rationale behind the criteria, and the ways in which breakout groups worked together to identify the most promising tasks from among those nominated. This article serves as an introduction to the set of 6 articles included in this special issue that provide information about the specific tasks discussed and selected for the constructs from each of 6 broad domains (working memory...
Encouraged by a rise of reciprocal interest between the machine learning and neuroscience communities, several recent studies have demonstrated the explanatory power of statistical learning techniques for the analysis of neural data. In order to facilitate a wider adoption of these methods, neuroscientific research needs to ensure a maximum of transparency to allow for comprehensive evaluation of the employed procedures. We argue that such transparency requires “neuroscience-aware” technology for the performance of multivariate pattern analyses of neural data that can be documented in a comprehensive, yet comprehensible way. Recently, we introduced PyMVPA, a specialized Python framework for machine learning based data analysis that addresses this demand. Here, we review its features and applicability to various neural data modalities.
Ethics is a growing interest for neuroscientists, but rather than signifying a commitment to the protection of human subjects, care of animals, and public understanding to which the professional community is engaged in a fundamental way, interest has been consumed by administrative overhead and the mission creep of institutional ethics reviews. Faculty, trainees, and staff (n = 605) in North America whose work involves brain imaging and brain stimulation completed an online survey about ethics in their research. Using factor analysis and linear regression, we found significant effects for invasiveness of imaging technique, professional position, gender, and local presence of bioethics centers. We propose strategies for improving communication between the neuroscience community and ethics review boards, collaborations between neuroscientists and biomedical ethicists, and ethics training in graduate neuroscience programs to revitalize mutual goals and interests.
We describe an application of the BIRN mediator to the integration of neuroscience experimental data sources. The BIRN mediator is a general purpose solution to the problem of providing integrated, semantically-consistent access to biomedical data from multiple, distributed, heterogeneous data sources. The system follows the mediation approach, where the data remains at the sources, providers maintain control of the data, and the integration system retrieves data from the sources in real-time in response to client queries. Our aim with this paper is to illustrate how domain-specific data integration applications can be developed quickly and in a principled way by using our general mediation technology. We describe in detail the integration of two leading, but radically different, experimental neuroscience sources, namely, the human imaging database, a relational database, and the eXtensible neuroimaging archive toolkit, an XML web services system. We discuss the steps, sources of complexity, effort, and time required to build such applications, as well as outline directions of ongoing and future research on biomedical data integration.
NEST is a widely used tool to simulate biological spiking neural networks. Here we explain the improvements, guided by a mathematical model of memory consumption, that enable us to exploit for the first time the computational power of the K supercomputer for neuroscience. Multi-threaded components for wiring and simulation combine 8 cores per MPI process to achieve excellent scaling. K is capable of simulating networks corresponding to a brain area with 108 neurons and 1012 synapses in the worst case scenario of random connectivity; for larger networks of the brain its hierarchical organization can be exploited to constrain the number of communicating computer nodes. We discuss the limits of the software technology, comparing maximum filling scaling plots for K and the JUGENE BG/P system. The usability of these machines for network simulations has become comparable to running simulations on a single PC. Turn-around times in the range of minutes even for the largest systems enable a quasi interactive working style and render simulations on this scale a practical tool for computational neuroscience.
To explain human financial risk taking, economic, and finance theories typically refer to the mathematical properties of financial options, whereas psychological theories have emphasized the influence of emotion and cognition on choice. From a neuroscience perspective, choice emanates from a dynamic multicomponential process. Recent technological advances in neuroimaging have made it possible for researchers to separately visualize perceptual input, intermediate processing, and motor output. An affective neuroscience account of financial risk taking thus might illuminate affective mediators that bridge the gap between statistical input and choice output. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a quantitative meta-analysis (via activation likelihood estimate or ALE) of functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments that focused on neural responses to financial options with varying statistical moments (i.e., mean, variance, skewness). Results suggested that different statistical moments elicit both common and distinct patterns of neural activity. Across studies, high versus low mean had the highest probability of increasing ventral striatal activity, but high versus low variance had the highest probability of increasing anterior insula activity. Further...
The relationships between emotional arousal and cognition in humans represent an important field in cognitive neuroscience. Studies examining the characteristics of emotion-induced memory enhancement and the mechanisms through which these effects occur are becoming increasingly common. This article describes three affordable laboratory exercises of relevance to the growing interest in this field. Specifically, Experiment one reviews a protocol for examining memory, hypermnesia, reminiscence, and primacy/recency effects for emotional and neutral words. Experiments two and three provide opportunities to examine the relationships between blood glucose level and memory for either a list of pictures or the spatial location of pictures. Each laboratory exercise contains a certain amount of flexibility and is malleable to the specific needs of the instructor. For example, the use of blood glucose monitoring may be of value to a variety of different exercises examining stress and/or emotional arousal and the stimuli used in each of the protocols may be varied, creating opportunities for a number of different novel exercises. A series of questions have been provided at the end of each exercise in order to help stimulate inclass discussion. The potential application of this line of research in cognitive neuroscience is conveyed through a list of references where glucose has been used to attenuate cognitive deficits in Alzheimer’s disease...
It is generally believed that students learn best through activities that require their direct participation. By using simulations as a tool for learning neuroscience, students are directly engaged in the activity and obtain immediate feedback and reinforcement. This paper describes a series of biophysical models and computer simulations that can be used by educators and students to explore a variety of basic principles in neuroscience. The paper also suggests ‘virtual laboratory’ exercises that students may conduct to further examine biophysical processes underlying neural function. First, the Hodgkin and Huxley (HH) model is presented. The HH model is used to illustrate the action potential, threshold phenomena, and nonlinear dynamical properties of neurons (e.g., oscillations, postinhibitory rebound excitation). Second, the Morris-Lecar (ML) model is presented. The ML model is used to develop a model of a bursting neuron and to illustrate modulation of neuronal activity by intracellular ions. Lastly, principles of synaptic transmission are presented in small neural networks, which illustrate oscillatory behavior, excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials, and temporal summation.
Hope College is an undergraduate liberal arts college with an enrollment of approximately 3,000 students. In the spring of 2005, we began to offer an interdisciplinary neuroscience minor program that is open to all students. The objective of this program is to introduce students to the field of neuroscience, and to do so in such a way as to broaden students’ disciplinary perspectives, enhance communication and quantitative skills, and increase higher-level reasoning skills by encouraging collaboration among students who have different disciplinary backgrounds. This is a research-based program that culminates in a one-year capstone research course. Here we present the story of the program development at Hope College, including a description of our newly developed curriculum, our initial assessment data, and the lessons we have learned in developing this program.
Case studies have been the cornerstone of many discoveries in neurology and continue to be an indispensable source of knowledge. Attaching a name, face, and story to the study of neurological disorders makes them more “real” and memorable. This article describes the value of the case study methodology and its advantages as a pedagogical approach. It also illustrates how the seminal case of H.M. can be used to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of the case study methodology. Three exercises are described for incorporating case studies into neuroscience courses. The first exercise requires students to conduct a literature review regarding their assigned case and then design an experiment to address a lingering question regarding that neurological disorder. Survey results of 90 students provide quantitative and qualitative support for this approach. The vast majority of students indicated this exercise was a valuable learning experience; sparked interest in the topic and in biopsychology; increased their knowledge and stimulated critical thinking. The second exercise discusses how students might conduct their own case studies. The third exercise emphasizes the use of case studies as a platform to examine competing hypotheses regarding neurological conditions and their treatment. A table listing case studies appropriate for undergraduate neuroscience courses is included. Cases are categorized by the type of neurological disorder and notes regarding the nature of and content of each case are provided.
This article provides an overview of the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine’s Pipeline Neuroscience Program, a multi-tiered mentorship and education program for Philadelphia high school students in which University of Pennsylvania undergraduates are integrally involved. The Pipeline Neuroscience Program provides mentorship and education for students at all levels. High school students are taught by undergraduates, who learn from medical students who, in turn, are guided by neurology residents and fellows.
The NorthEast Under/graduate Research Organization for Neuroscience (N.E.U.R.O.N.) promotes preparation, education, and undergraduate research in Neuroscience. The N.E.U.R.O.N. Conference was initially held at undergraduate institutions primarily in New England. Then, for the previous two years, to broaden its impact and increase diversity, the meeting moved to Hunter College, CUNY, New York. This year represents the first year in which two N.E.U.R.O.N. meetings were held, one in Boston and one in New York City.
In this programmatic paper we explain why a radical embodied cognitive neuroscience is needed. We argue for such a claim based on problems that have arisen in cognitive neuroscience for the project of localizing function to specific brain structures. The problems come from research concerned with functional and structural connectivity that strongly suggests that the function a brain region serves is dynamic, and changes over time. We argue that in order to determine the function of a specific brain area, neuroscientists need to zoom out and look at the larger organism-environment system. We therefore argue that instead of looking to cognitive psychology for an analysis of psychological functions, cognitive neuroscience should look to an ecological dynamical psychology. A second aim of our paper is to develop an account of embodied cognition based on the inseparability of cognitive and emotional processing in the brain. We argue that emotions are best understood in terms of action readiness (Frijda, 1986, 2007) in the context of the organism’s ongoing skillful engagement with the environment (Rietveld, 2008; Bruineberg and Rietveld, 2014; Kiverstein and Rietveld, 2015, forthcoming). States of action readiness involve the whole living body of the organism...
Undergraduate neuroscience courses typically involve highly interdisciplinary material, and it is often necessary to use class time to review how principles of chemistry, math and biology apply to neuroscience. Lecturing and Socratic discussion can work well to deliver information to students, but these techniques can lead students to feel more like spectators than participants in a class, and do not actively engage students in the critical analysis and application of experimental evidence. If one goal of undergraduate neuroscience education is to foster critical thinking skills, then the classroom should be a place where students and instructors can work together to develop them.
A key goal of educational neuroscience is to conduct constrained experimental research that is theory-driven and yet also clearly related to educators’ complex set of questions and concerns. However, the fields of education, cognitive psychology, and neuroscience use different levels of description to characterize human ability. An important advance in research in educational neuroscience would be the identification of a cognitive and neurocognitive framework at a level of description relatively intuitive to educators. I argue that the theory of multiple intelligences (MI; Gardner, 1983), a conception of the mind that motivated a past generation of teachers, may provide such an opportunity. I criticize MI for doing little to clarify for teachers a core misunderstanding, specifically that MI was only an anatomical map of the mind but not a functional theory that detailed how the mind actually processes information. In an attempt to build a “functional MI” theory, I integrate into MI basic principles of cognitive and neural functioning, namely interregional neural facilitation and inhibition. In so doing I hope to forge a path toward constrained experimental research that bears upon teachers’ concerns about teaching and learning.
According to a wide variety of scholars, scientists, and policymakers, neuroscience promises to
transform law. Many neurolegalists—those championing the power of neuroscience for law—proceed
from problematic premises regarding the relationship of mind to brain. In this Article, we make the
case that their accounts of the nature of mind are implausible and that their conclusions are overblown.
Thus, their claims of the power of neuroscience for law cannot be sustained. We discuss a wide array
of examples including lie detection, criminal-law doctrine, economic decision-making, moral
decision-making, and jurisprudence
Cognitive neuroscience has become one of the most cutting-edge fields in technoscience across the globe. Now entering an exciting era is a sub-discipline known as social cognitive neuroscience (SCN), or the biologically grounded complement of social and cognitive psychology focused on the neural basis of human thought and social behavior. Combining ethnographic fieldwork with concepts that have risen out of previous studies in the cultural anthropology of science and technology, this case study of the Social Cognition Laboratory (SCL) examines the everyday space, practices, and individuals that give rise to the contemporary world of SCN. By rendering science and technology cultural activities that may be critiqued through an anthropological lens, I orient SCN as a scientific subculture that is simultaneously encultured. This exercise in the demystification of this dominating and popularly imagined discipline seeks to accomplish two goals. First, I illustrate the nuances inherent to this emergent field of “hard” technoscience, which seeks to shed light on aspects of the social world that have been historically subject to investigation by the social sciences and humanities. Second, I challenge prevailing, computer-based epistemologies of self and world produced by concepts and research in SCN. Addressing how these understandings are historically constituted...
http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2012n63p187 This study reviews recent data on functional illiteracy and advances on neuroscience about the reading process. alarming figures on functional illiteracy will be presented with examples of UK and brazil. Empirical evidences brought by neuroscience prove the neuropsychological basis constructs, namely invariance already claimed by modern linguistics. however, emphasis will be given to the psychological reality of letters’ feature invariance, demonstrated by various experiments which had been recently run by neuroscientists. two types of invariance are shown, the spatial and the font invariance, exemplified by a description of invariant features of the roman alphabet. We then cite the major difficulties faced at by beginning readers, namely, how to dismember the chain speech into words (separated in the written space by blanks) and the syllable into its units, in order to link them to their correspondent graphemes (composed by one or more letters). in addition, one of the major difficulties is how to teach neurons to dissymmetrize the letter features. neuroscience conclusions from experiments about the readingprocess demonstrate that neurons of the occipito-temporalventral region of the left hemisphere must be recycled in orderto learn how to recognize the written word. altogether withthe results obtained on a well succeeded experience run by theprogram Early intervention initiative (Eii) and by an experimentrun in a Florianopolis school...