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Relações entre a neurociência e o ensino e aprendizagem das artes plásticas; Relations between neuroscience and the teaching and learning of plastic arts.

Cury, Vera Cristina Sgambato
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/04/2007 PT
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Esse trabalho busca estabelecer relações entre a neurociência e o ensino e aprendizagem da arte, mantendo o foco nas artes plásticas. Desse modo o ato de desenhar, observar, perceber e imaginar, exercidos na ação artística, são considerados a partir do funcionamento do sistema nervoso. O conhecimento de como o encéfalo funciona pode dar subsídios importantes para futuras formulações metodológicas da área.; This work seeks to establish relations between neuroscience and the teaching and learning of art, having plastic arts as main focus. This way the act of drawing, observing, interpreting and imagining are considered from the functioning of the nervous system. The knowledge of how the nervous system, mainly the brain, works may provide important subsidies for future methodological formulations in the area.

Estudo do uso de mapa conceitual na promoção de aprendizagem significativa de conteúdo de neurociência na graduação; Study of the use of conceptual map in promoting meaningful learning of the neuroscience content in graduation

Takeuchi, Margareth Yuri
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/08/2009 PT
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Os estudos dos processos cognitivos propiciam um cenário promissor para a realização de pesquisas visando uma maior compreensão de como o funcionamento do cérebro pode favorecer a educação, possibilitando o desenvolvimento de novas teorias e abordagens que estimulem a aprendizagem. O presente trabalho abordará principalmente como se dá a aquisição, o armazenamento, processamento e a recuperação do conhecimento do ponto de vista da neurociência e de que forma o mapa conceitual (MC) pode mapear o conhecimento do indivíduo. O MC pode ser utilizado tanto como uma estratégia de aprendizagem para a compreensão de conceitos-chave bem como as relações entre estes quanto para promover o pensamento crítico do indivíduo. É uma representação gráfica bidimensional cuja estrutura permite organizar visualmente as relações entre conceitos que podem ser indicadas por palavras, frases e símbolos. É usado para facilitar o aprendizado ao hierarquizar os conceitos por meio de construções significativas para o indivíduo. Os conceitos aparecem nas caixas e as relações nas linhas que os unem: a dois conceitos conectados chamamos de proposição. Durante a construção de um MC o indivíduo exercita a sua capacidade de estabelecer relações entre o conhecimento que já tem e o adquirido no decorrer da aprendizagem ao representar graficamente os conceitos sobre um determinado assunto.; The study of cognitive processes provide a promising scenario to research aimed at better understanding of how the functioning of the brain may promote the education...

What affective neuroscience means for science of consciousness

Almada, Leonardo; Pereira, Alfredo; Carrara-Augustenborg, Claudia
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 253-273
ENG
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The field of affective neuroscience has emerged from the efforts of Jaak Panksepp in the 1990s and reinforced by the work of, among others, Joseph LeDoux in the 2000s. It is based on the ideas that affective processes are supported by brain structures that appeared earlier in the phylogenetic scale (as the periaqueductal gray area), they run in parallel with cognitive processes, and can influence behaviour independently of cognitive judgements. This kind of approach contrasts with the hegemonic concept of conscious processing in cognitive neurosciences, which is based on the identification of brain circuits responsible for the processing of (cognitive) representations. Within cognitive neurosciences, the frontal lobes are assigned the role of coordinators in maintaining affective states and their emotional expressions under cognitive control. An intermediary view is the Damasio-Bechara Somatic Marker model, which puts cognition under partial somatic-affective control. We present here our efforts to make a synthesis of these views, by proposing the existence of two interacting brain circuits; the first one in charge of cognitive processes and the second mediating feelings about cognitive contents. The coupling of the two circuits promotes an endogenous feedback that supports conscious processes. Within this framework...

Implementation Considerations for Multisite Clinical Trials with Cognitive Neuroscience Tasks

Keefe, Richard S. E.; Harvey, Philip D.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Multisite clinical trials aimed at cognitive enhancement across various neuropsychiatric conditions have employed standard neuropsychological tests as outcome measures. While these tests have enjoyed wide clinical use and have proven reliable and predictive of functional disability, a number of implementation challenges have arisen when these tests are used in clinical trials. These issues are likely to be magnified in future studies when cognitive neuroscience (CN) procedures are explored in these trials, because in their current forms CN procedures are less standardized and more difficult to teach and monitor. For multisite trials, we anticipate that the most challenging issues will include assuring tester competence, monitoring tester performance, specific challenges with complex assessment methods, and having resources available for adequate monitoring of data quality. Suggestions for overcoming these implementation challenges are offered.

CNTRICS Final Task Selection: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience–Based Measures

Carter, Cameron S.; Barch, Deanna M.; Gur, Ruben; Gur, Raquel; Pinkham, Amy; Ochsner, Kevin
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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This article describes the results and recommendations of the third Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia meeting related to measuring treatment effects on social and affective processing. At the first meeting, it was recommended that measurement development focuses on the construct of emotion identification and responding. Five Tasks were nominated as candidate measures for this construct via the premeeting web-based survey. Two of the 5 tasks were recommended for immediate translation, the Penn Emotion Recognition Task and the Facial Affect Recognition and the Effects of Situational Context, which provides a measure of emotion identification and responding as well as a related, higher level construct, context-based modulation of emotional responding. This article summarizes the criteria-based, consensus building analysis of each nominated task that led to these 2 paradigms being recommended as priority tasks for development as measures of treatment effects on negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

Automated Recognition of Brain Region Mentions in Neuroscience Literature

French, Leon; Lane, Suzanne; Xu, Lydia; Pavlidis, Paul
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/09/2009 EN
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The ability to computationally extract mentions of neuroanatomical regions from the literature would assist linking to other entities within and outside of an article. Examples include extracting reports of connectivity or region-specific gene expression. To facilitate text mining of neuroscience literature we have created a corpus of manually annotated brain region mentions. The corpus contains 1,377 abstracts with 18,242 brain region annotations. Interannotator agreement was evaluated for a subset of the documents, and was 90.7% and 96.7% for strict and lenient matching respectively. We observed a large vocabulary of over 6,000 unique brain region terms and 17,000 words. For automatic extraction of brain region mentions we evaluated simple dictionary methods and complex natural language processing techniques. The dictionary methods based on neuroanatomical lexicons recalled 36% of the mentions with 57% precision. The best performance was achieved using a conditional random field (CRF) with a rich feature set. Features were based on morphological, lexical, syntactic and contextual information. The CRF recalled 76% of mentions at 81% precision, by counting partial matches recall and precision increase to 86% and 92% respectively. We suspect a large amount of error is due to coordinating conjunctions...

Temporal Decision-Making: Insights from Cognitive Neuroscience

Luhmann, Christian C.
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/10/2009 EN
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Decisions frequently have consequences that play out over time and these temporal factors can exert strong influences on behavior. For example, decision-makers exhibit delay discounting, behaving as though immediately consumable goods are more valuable than those available only after some delay. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, we are now beginning to characterize the physiological bases of such behavior in humans and to link work on this topic from neuroscience, psychology, and economics. Here we review recent neurocognitive investigations of temporal decision-making and outline the theoretical picture that is beginning to take shape. Taken as a whole, this body of work illustrates the progress made in understanding temporal choice behavior. However, we also note several questions that remain unresolved and areas where future work is needed.

Trends in Programming Languages for Neuroscience Simulations

Davison, Andrew P.; Hines, Michael L.; Muller, Eilif
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/12/2009 EN
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Neuroscience simulators allow scientists to express models in terms of biological concepts, without having to concern themselves with low-level computational details of their implementation. The expressiveness, power and ease-of-use of the simulator interface is critical in efficiently and accurately translating ideas into a working simulation. We review long-term trends in the development of programmable simulator interfaces, and examine the benefits of moving from proprietary, domain-specific languages to modern dynamic general-purpose languages, in particular Python, which provide neuroscientists with an interactive and expressive simulation development environment and easy access to state-of-the-art general-purpose tools for scientific computing.

Mining the Mind Research Network: A Novel Framework for Exploring Large Scale, Heterogeneous Translational Neuroscience Research Data Sources

Bockholt, Henry J.; Scully, Mark; Courtney, William; Rachakonda, Srinivas; Scott, Adam; Caprihan, Arvind; Fries, Jill; Kalyanam, Ravi; Segall, Judith M.; de la Garza, Raul; Lane, Susan; Calhoun, Vince D.
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/04/2010 EN
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A neuroinformatics (NI) system is critical to brain imaging research in order to shorten the time between study conception and results. Such a NI system is required to scale well when large numbers of subjects are studied. Further, when multiple sites participate in research projects organizational issues become increasingly difficult. Optimized NI applications mitigate these problems. Additionally, NI software enables coordination across multiple studies, leveraging advantages potentially leading to exponential research discoveries. The web-based, Mind Research Network (MRN), database system has been designed and improved through our experience with 200 research studies and 250 researchers from seven different institutions. The MRN tools permit the collection, management, reporting and efficient use of large scale, heterogeneous data sources, e.g., multiple institutions, multiple principal investigators, multiple research programs and studies, and multimodal acquisitions. We have collected and analyzed data sets on thousands of research participants and have set up a framework to automatically analyze the data, thereby making efficient, practical data mining of this vast resource possible. This paper presents a comprehensive framework for capturing and analyzing heterogeneous neuroscience research data sources that has been fully optimized for end-users to perform novel data mining.

A Personal View of the Early Development of Computational Neuroscience in the USA

Moore, John W.
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/07/2010 EN
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In the half-century since the seminal Hodgkin–Huxley papers were published, computational neuroscience has become an established discipline, evolving from computer modeling of neurons to attempts to understand the computational functions of the brain. Here, I narrate my experience of the early steps and sense of excitement in this field, with its promise of rapid development, paralleling that of computers.

Worth a Glance: Using Eye Movements to Investigate the Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory

Hannula, Deborah E.; Althoff, Robert R.; Warren, David E.; Riggs, Lily; Cohen, Neal J.; Ryan, Jennifer D.
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/10/2010 EN
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Results of several investigations indicate that eye movements can reveal memory for elements of previous experience. These effects of memory on eye movement behavior can emerge very rapidly, changing the efficiency and even the nature of visual processing without appealing to verbal reports and without requiring conscious recollection. This aspect of eye movement based memory investigations is particularly useful when eye movement methods are used with special populations (e.g., young children, elderly individuals, and patients with severe amnesia), and also permits use of comparable paradigms in animals and humans, helping to bridge different memory literatures and permitting cross-species generalizations. Unique characteristics of eye movement methods have produced findings that challenge long-held views about the nature of memory, its organization in the brain, and its failures in special populations. Recently, eye movement methods have been successfully combined with neuroimaging techniques such as fMRI, single-unit recording, and magnetoencephalography, permitting more sophisticated investigations of memory. Ultimately, combined use of eye-tracking with neuropsychological and neuroimaging methods promises to provide a more comprehensive account of brain–behavior relationships and adheres to the “converging evidence” approach to cognitive neuroscience.

Developmental neuroscience of time and number: implications for autism and other neurodevelopmental disabilities

Allman, Melissa J.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Meck, Warren H.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/03/2012 EN
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Estimations of time and number share many similarities in both non-humans and man. The primary focus of this review is on the development of time and number sense across infancy and childhood, and neuropsychological findings as they relate to time and number discrimination in infants and adults. Discussion of these findings is couched within a mode-control model of timing and counting which assumes time and number share a common magnitude representation system. A basic sense of time and number likely serves as the foundation for advanced numerical and temporal competence, and aspects of higher cognition—this will be discussed as it relates to typical childhood, and certain developmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder. Directions for future research in the developmental neuroscience of time and number (NEUTIN) will also be highlighted.

Brain-Computer Interfaces: A Neuroscience Paradigm of Social Interaction? A Matter of Perspective

Mattout, Jérémie
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/06/2012 EN
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A number of recent studies have put human subjects in true social interactions, with the aim of better identifying the psychophysiological processes underlying social cognition. Interestingly, this emerging Neuroscience of Social Interactions (NSI) field brings up challenges which resemble important ones in the field of Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI). Importantly, these challenges go beyond common objectives such as the eventual use of BCI and NSI protocols in the clinical domain or common interests pertaining to the use of online neurophysiological techniques and algorithms. Common fundamental challenges are now apparent and one can argue that a crucial one is to develop computational models of brain processes relevant to human interactions with an adaptive agent, whether human or artificial. Coupled with neuroimaging data, such models have proved promising in revealing the neural basis and mental processes behind social interactions. Similar models could help BCI to move from well-performing but offline static machines to reliable online adaptive agents. This emphasizes a social perspective to BCI, which is not limited to a computational challenge but extends to all questions that arise when studying the brain in interaction with its environment.

3D kinematics using dual quaternions: theory and applications in neuroscience

Leclercq, Guillaume; Lefèvre, Philippe; Blohm, Gunnar
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/02/2013 EN
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In behavioral neuroscience, many experiments are developed in 1 or 2 spatial dimensions, but when scientists tackle problems in 3-dimensions (3D), they often face problems or new challenges. Results obtained for lower dimensions are not always extendable in 3D. In motor planning of eye, gaze or arm movements, or sensorimotor transformation problems, the 3D kinematics of external (stimuli) or internal (body parts) must often be considered: how to describe the 3D position and orientation of these objects and link them together? We describe how dual quaternions provide a convenient way to describe the 3D kinematics for position only (point transformation) or for combined position and orientation (through line transformation), easily modeling rotations, translations or screw motions or combinations of these. We also derive expressions for the velocities of points and lines as well as the transformation velocities. Then, we apply these tools to a motor planning task for manual tracking and to the modeling of forward and inverse kinematics of a seven-dof three-link arm to show the interest of dual quaternions as a tool to build models for these kinds of applications.

Use of the Herb Gymnema sylvestre to Illustrate the Principles of Gustatory Sensation: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Exercise

Schroeder, Joseph A.; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen
Fonte: Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience Publicador: Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/06/2005 EN
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The Indian herb Gymnema sylvestre has been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for 2000 years, most recently for the treatment of diabetes. Loose leaf Gymnema sylvestre can be prepared as a tea and will impair the ability to taste sugar by blocking sweet receptors on the tongue. This report describes a laboratory exercise easily applied to an undergraduate neuroscience course that can be used to illustrate the principles of gustatory sensation. Combined with a preceding lecture on the primary taste sensations, students experience and appreciate how the primary tastes are combined to produce overall taste. In addition, the exercises outlined here expand upon previously published demonstrations employing Gymnema sylvestre to include illustrations of the different sensory transduction mechanisms associated with each of the four or five primary taste modalities. Students compare their qualitative primary taste experiences to salt, sugar, aspartame, chocolate, and sweet-sour candy prior to and following exposure to Gymnema sylvestre. The herb’s impairment of sweet sensation is profound and dramatically alters the perception of sweetness in sugar, chocolate, and candy without altering the perception of the other primary tastes. The exercise has an indelible effect on students because the herb’s intense effect compels students to rely on their unique personal experiences to highlight the principles of gustatory sensation.

Funding Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: CCLI Yesterday and Today

Pruitt, Nancy L.; Small, Jeanne R.; Woodin, Terry
Fonte: Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience Publicador: Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/06/2006 EN
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For over 20 years, the Division of Undergraduate Education (DUE) at the National Science Foundation (NSF) has been supporting undergraduate curricula in the sciences, including neuroscience. NSF’s priorities in undergraduate education, however, have evolved during that period, and the competition for grants has increased. This history and overview of the current Course, Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement program (CCLI) illustrates the changing philosophy of DUE with regard to its curricular programs. It is hoped that understanding the current emphasis on assessing the outcomes of curricular changes and disseminating their results will help interested science faculty write better proposals and compete more effectively for funds.

An Undergraduate Course on Publishing in Neuroscience

Jones, Leslie Sargent; Black, L. Codi; Bright, Lauren; Meekins, Catherine; Thakur, Vivek; Warren, Cade
Fonte: Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience Publicador: Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/06/2006 EN
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While scientific publishing is not typically taught to undergraduate students, we believe that an in-depth exposure to this topic might prove useful to those contemplating careers in neuroscience research or scientific writing and publishing. Here we describe a course designed to introduce students to most aspects of online publishing, from the details of editing to the ethics of scientific communication, from the specifics of how an online website works to the general debate between open-access and for-profit publishing. By having students learn about the theoretical issues in refereeing while actually reviewing submissions for the journal IMPULSE, the students gain practical knowledge about scientific publishing, a deeper understanding of the contemporary research environment, and intellectual confidence.

Adapting the Learning-Cycle to Enrich Undergraduate Neuroscience Education for All Students

Stewart, Mark; Stavrianeas, Stasinos
Fonte: Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience Publicador: Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/06/2008 EN
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A learning-cycle approach to science instruction is not new to science educators (Karplus, 1977; Kolb, 1984; Bergquist, 1991; Zollman, 1990; Allard and Barman, 1994). Somewhat less known, however, is the usefulness of this approach for creating lab activities for a broad audience of undergraduates. The following paper presents a brief overview of a laboratory activity that can be adapted for use by instructors of introductory neuroscience courses. The three-hour activity is geared towards tapping key elements of the learning-cycle approach, with a particular emphasis on the exploration phase of the model. Students work as members of small teams to explore a contemporary issue involving memory and gain hands-on experience from the outset, to which conceptual information is then added during lecture the following week. The approach is in marked contrast to the more traditional practice in the sciences where laboratory activities generally serve to punctuate already presented lecture material.

Virtual EEG: A Software-Based Electroencephalogram Designed for Undergraduate Neuroscience-Related Courses

Miller, Benjamin R.; Troyer, Melissa; Busey, Thomas
Fonte: Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience Publicador: Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/10/2008 EN
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A current topic in neuroscience addresses the link between brain activity and visual awareness. The electroencephalogram (EEG), which uses non-invasive high temporal resolution scalp recordings to measure brain activity, is a common tool used to probe this question. EEG recordings, however, are difficult to implement in the curriculum of laboratory-based courses. Thus, undergraduate students often lack experience with EEG experiments.

Every Cell Counts: An Inquiry-Based Approach to Address a Novel Research Question in an Undergraduate Neuroscience Lab

Birkett, Melissa A.
Fonte: Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience Publicador: Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/06/2009 EN
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A science-based curriculum that encourages hands-on experiences, skill development, and promotes student engagement are critical components in both successful undergraduate psychology and neuroscience programs. This lab explored an inquiry-based research project focused on microscopy skills, critical thinking, and independent research design. This lesson used a novel research question (How many serotonergic cells are located in the dorsal raphe nucleus?) to engage students in research and methodology design. The resulting lab received positive feedback from students and provided data about the serotonergic system in a previously unreported species.