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Human Onchocerciasis and Tetanus Vaccination: Impact on the Postvaccination Antitetanus Antibody Response

Cooper, Philip J.; Espinel, Ivan; Wieseman, Moira; Paredes, Wilson; Espinel, Mauricio; Guderian, Ronald H.; Nutman, Thomas B.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1999 EN
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803.6847%
To investigate whether helminth infections may affect the efficacy of vaccines by impairing the immune response to nonparasite vaccine antigens, we compared the antibody responses to tetanus toxoid (TT) after tetanus vaccination in 193 subjects with Onchocerca volvulus infection with 85 comparable noninfected controls. After vaccination, the proportions of subjects in each group attaining protective levels of antitetanus antibodies were similar (96.9% infected versus 97.6% noninfected). Postvaccination increases in antitetanus immunoglobulin G (IgG) and the predominant IgG isotype, IgG1, were equivalent in both groups, as were increases in specific IgG4 and IgE; however, significantly greater increases in specific IgG2 (P < 0.05) and IgG3 (P < 0.001) were observed in the noninfected group. Stratification of the O. volvulus-infected group into two groups representing light and heavy infections revealed a significantly impaired antitetanus IgG response in those with heavy infections compared to those with light infections (P < 0.01) or no infection (P < 0.05). The impact of concurrent intestinal helminth infections on the antitetanus response was also examined; an increased IgG4/IgE ratio was seen in those infected with Strongyloides stercoralis (P < 0.05) and when all helminth infections were combined as a single group (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that concurrent infection with O. volvulus does not prevent the development of a protective antitetanus response...

T-Cell-Dependent Control of Acute Giardia lamblia Infections in Mice

Singer, Steven M.; Nash, Theodore E.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2000 EN
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We have studied immune mechanisms responsible for control of acute Giardia lamblia and Giardia muris infections in adult mice. Association of chronic G. lamblia infection with hypogammaglobulinemia and experimental infections of mice with G. muris have led to the hypothesis that antibodies are required to control these infections. We directly tested this hypothesis by infecting B-cell-deficient mice with either G. lamblia or G. muris. Both wild-type mice and B-cell-deficient mice eliminated the vast majority of parasites between 1 and 2 weeks postinfection with G. lamblia. G. muris was also eliminated in both wild-type and B-cell-deficient mice. In contrast, T-cell-deficient and scid mice failed to control G. lamblia infections, as has been shown previously for G. muris. Treatment of wild-type or B-cell-deficient mice with antibodies to CD4 also prevented elimination of G. lamblia, confirming a role for T cells in controlling infections. By infecting mice deficient in either αβ- or γδ-T-cell receptor (TCR)-expressing T cells, we show that the αβ-TCR-expressing T cells are required to control parasites but that the γδ-TCR-expressing T cells are not. Finally, infections in mice deficient in production of gamma interferon or interleukin 4 (IL-4) and mice deficient in responding to IL-4 and IL-13 revealed that neither the Th1 nor the Th2 subset is absolutely required for protection from G. lamblia. We conclude that a T-cell-dependent mechanism is essential for controlling acute Giardia infections and that this mechanism is independent of antibody and B cells.

Persistent Cryptococcus neoformans Pulmonary Infection in the Rat Is Associated with Intracellular Parasitism, Decreased Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression, and Altered Antibody Responsiveness to Cryptococcal Polysaccharide

Goldman, David L.; Lee, Sunhee C.; Mednick, Aron J.; Montella, Lya; Casadevall, Arturo
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2000 EN
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Fungal pathogens are notorious for causing chronic and latent infections, but the mechanism by which they evade the immune response is poorly understood. A major limitation in the study of chronic fungal infection has been the lack of suitable animal models where the infection is controlled and yet persists. Pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection in rats results in a diffuse pneumonitis that resolves without dissemination or scarring except for the persistence of interstitial and subpleural granulomas that harbor viable cryptococci inside macrophages and epithelioid cells. Infected rats are asymptomatic but remain infected for as long as 18 months after inoculation with C. neoformans. Containment of infection is associated with granuloma formation that can be partially abrogated by glucocorticoid administration. Using this model, we identified several features associated with persistent infection in the rat lung, including (i) localization of C. neoformans to discrete, well-organized granulomas; (ii) intracellular persistence of C. neoformans within macrophages and epithelioid cells; (iii) reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by granulomas harboring C. neoformans; and (iv) reduced antibody responses to cryptococcal polysaccharide. The results show that maintenance of persistent infection is associated with downregulation of both cellular and humoral immune responses.

Subunit Vaccination of Mice against New World Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Comparison of Three Proteins Expressed in Amastigotes and Six Adjuvants

Aebischer, Toni; Wolfram, Markus; Patzer, Silke I.; Ilg, Thomas; Wiese, Martin; Overath, Peter
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2000 EN
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A mixture of well-defined recombinant antigens together with an adjuvant that preferentially stimulates specific gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-secreting helper type 1 CD4+ T cells (Th1 cells) presents a rational option for a vaccine against leishmaniasis. The potential of this approach was investigated in murine infections with Leishmania mexicana, which are characterized by the absence of a parasite-specific Th1 response and uncontrolled parasite proliferation. A mixture of three antigens (glycoprotein 63, cysteine proteinases, and a membrane-bound acid phosphatase), which are all expressed in amastigotes, the mammalian stage of the parasite, were used for the immunization of C57BL/6 mice in combination with six adjuvants (interleukin 12 [IL-12], Detox, 4′-monophosphoryl lipid A, QS-21, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, and Corynebacterium parvum). All six vaccine formulations containing the mixture of recombinant antigens were protective against challenge infections with promastigotes, the insect stage of the parasite, in that mice controlled and healed infections but developed transient and, in certain cases, accentuated disease. The most effective adjuvants were IL-12 followed by Detox. Further studies using these two adjuvants showed that a similar protective effect was observed with a mixture of the corresponding native proteins...

Pathogenic Yeasts Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans Produce Immunomodulatory Prostaglandins

Noverr, Mairi C.; Phare, Susan M.; Toews, Galen B.; Coffey, Michael J.; Huffnagle, Gary B.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2001 EN
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809.3931%
Enhanced prostaglandin production during fungal infection could be an important factor in promoting fungal colonization and chronic infection. Host cells are one source of prostaglandins; however, another potential source of prostaglandins is the fungal pathogen itself. Our objective was to determine if the pathogenic yeasts Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans produce prostaglandins and, if so, to begin to define the role of these bioactive lipids in yeast biology and disease pathogenesis. C. neoformans and C. albicans both secreted prostaglandins de novo or via conversion of exogenous arachidonic acid. Treatment with cyclooxygenase inhibitors dramatically reduced the viability of the yeast and the production of prostaglandins, suggesting that an essential cyclooxygenase like enzyme may be responsible for fungal prostaglandin production. A PGE series lipid was purified from both C. albicans and C. neoformans and was biologically active on both fungal and mammalian cells. Fungal PGEx and synthetic PGE2 enhanced the yeast-to-hypha transition in C. albicans. Furthermore, in mammalian cells, fungal PGEx down-modulated chemokine production, tumor necrosis factor alpha production, and splenocyte proliferation while up-regulating interleukin 10 production. These are all activities previously documented for mammalian PGE2. Thus...

Cell Adhesion Molecule and Lymphocyte Activation Marker Expression during Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis

Wormley, Floyd L.; Chaiban, Joseph; Fidel, Paul L.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2001 EN
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Cell-mediated immunity by Th1-type CD4+ T cells is the predominant host defense mechanism against mucosal candidiasis. However, studies using an estrogen-dependent murine model of vaginal candidiasis have demonstrated little to no change in resident vaginal T cells during infection and no systemic T-cell infiltration despite the presence of Candida-specific systemic Th1-type responses in infected mice. The present study was designed to further investigate these observations by characterizing T-cell activation and cell adhesion molecule expression during primary and secondary C. albicans vaginal infections. While flow cytometry analysis of activation markers showed some evidence for activation of CD3+ draining lymph node and/or vaginal lymphocytes during both primary and secondary vaginal Candida infection, CD3+ cells expressing the homing receptors and integrins α4β7, αM290β7, and α4β1 in draining lymph nodes of mice with primary and secondary infections were reduced compared to results for uninfected mice. At the local level, few vaginal lymphocytes expressed integrins, with only minor changes observed during both primary and secondary infections. On the other hand, immunohistochemical analysis of vaginal cell adhesion molecule expression showed increases in mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 expression during both primary and secondary infections. Altogether...

Interleukin-4 Receptor–Stat6 Signaling in Murine Infections with a Tissue-Dwelling Nematode Parasite

Spencer, L.; Shultz, L.; Rajan, T. V.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2001 EN
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Interleukin-4 (IL-4) has been shown to be crucial in parasite expulsion in several gastrointestinal nematode infection models. Data from both epidemiological studies with humans and experimental infections in animals imply a critical role for the type II helper response, dominated by IL-4, in host protection. Here we utilized inbred mice on two distinct backgrounds to document the involvement of IL-4 in the clearance of a primary infection of Brugia from the murine host. Our data from infections of IL-4 receptor−/− and Stat6−/− mice further indicate that IL-4 exerts its effects by activating the Stat6 molecule in host target cells, a finding which links clearance requirements of a gastrointestinal tract-dwelling nematode with those of a tissue-dwelling nematode. Additionally, we show that the requirements for IL-4 receptor binding and Stat6 activation extend to accelerated clearance of a secondary infection as well. The data shown here, including analysis of cell populations at the site of infection and infection of immunoglobulin E (IgE)−/− mice, lead us to suggest that deficiencies in eosinophil recruitment and isotype switching to IgE production may be at least partially responsible for slower parasite clearance in the absence of IL-4.

Altered Immune Responses in Mice with Concomitant Schistosoma mansoni and Plasmodium chabaudi Infections

Helmby, Helena; Kullberg, Marika; Troye-Blomberg, Marita
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1998 EN
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811.472%
Mixed parasitic infections are common in many parts of the world. However, little is known about how concurrent infections affect the immunity to and/or pathogenesis of each other. Protection and elimination of blood-stage Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi AS in resistant mice are characterized by a sequential activation of CD4+ Th1 and Th2 cells. The patent egg-laying stage of the murine model of Schistosoma mansoni is associated with a strong Th2 response to both Schistosoma and unrelated antigens. In this study, we investigated how infection of mice with S. mansoni would affect the immune response to and pathogenesis of a P. chabaudi infection. C57BL/6 mice infected with S. mansoni for 8 weeks were infected with blood-stage P. chabaudi. Malaria parasitemias were significantly higher in these mice than in mice infected with P. chabaudi only. In doubly infected mice, both spleen cell proliferative and Th2 responses to S. mansoni soluble egg antigen (SEA) or anti-CD3 were suppressed up to 1 month after the malaria infection. Findings for SEA-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG serum antibody levels were similar. No significant effects were seen on P. chabaudi-induced gamma interferon responses. However, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production was significantly lower in double-infected mice. Thus...

The p29 and p35 Immunodominant Antigens of Neospora caninum Tachyzoites Are Homologous to the Family of Surface Antigens of Toxoplasma gondii

Howe, Daniel K.; Crawford, Amy C.; Lindsay, David; Sibley, L. David
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1998 EN
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791.88195%
Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that is closely related to Toxoplasma gondii and has been found to be associated with neurological disorders in dogs and congenital infections and abortions in cattle. We have identified two surface proteins of 29 and 35 kDa (designated Ncp29 and Ncp35, respectively) from N. caninum tachyzoites that are the predominant antigens recognized by antisera from Neospora-infected animals. Monoclonal antibodies against Ncp29 and Ncp35 were used to analyze several independent and diverse N. caninum isolates; both antigens were recognized in all isolates, suggesting that they are well conserved. Localization studies and surface labeling with biotin demonstrated that Ncp29 and Ncp35 are membrane associated and displayed on the surface of the parasite. After treatment with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, parasite lysates were analyzed with antibodies against the cross-reacting determinant of glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors. Approximately six glycolipid-anchored surface proteins were identified, with the two most prominent corresponding to Ncp29 and Ncp35. Sequence comparisons of Ncp29 and Ncp35 with GenBank indicated that they are most similar to the T. gondii surface antigen 1 (SAG1) and surface antigen 1-related sequence 2 (SRS2)...

Geographical Structure of Diversity and Differences between Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Infections for Plasmodium falciparum Vaccine Candidate AMA1

Cortés, Alfred; Mellombo, Mata; Mueller, Ivo; Benet, Ariadna; Reeder, John C.; Anders, Robin F.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2003 EN
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898.2813%
Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) is a prime malaria vaccine candidate. Antigenic diversity within parasite populations is one of the main factors potentially limiting the efficacy of any asexual-stage vaccine, including one based on AMA1. The DNA coding for the most variable region of this antigen, domain I, was sequenced in 168 samples from the Wosera region of Papua New Guinea, including samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic infections. Neutrality tests applied to these sequences provided strong evidence of selective pressure operating on the sequence of ama1 domain I, consistent with AMA1 being a target of protective immunity. Similarly, a peculiar pattern of geographical diversity and the particular substitutions found were suggestive of strong constraints acting on the evolution of AMA1 at the population level, probably as a result of immune pressure. In addition, a strong imbalance between symptomatic and asymptomatic infections was detected in the frequency of particular residues at certain polymorphic positions, pointing to AMA1 as being one of the determinants of the morbidity associated with a particular strain. The information yielded by this study has implications for the design and assessment of AMA1-based vaccines and provides additional data supporting the importance of AMA1 as a malaria vaccine candidate.

The Secreted Aspartyl Proteinases Sap1 and Sap2 Cause Tissue Damage in an In Vitro Model of Vaginal Candidiasis Based on Reconstituted Human Vaginal Epithelium

Schaller, Martin; Bein, Matthias; Korting, Hans C.; Baur, Stefan; Hamm, Gerald; Monod, Michel; Beinhauer, Sabine; Hube, Bernhard
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2003 EN
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795.8986%
Secreted aspartyl proteinases (Saps) contribute to the ability of Candida albicans to cause mucosal and disseminated infections. A model of vaginal candidiasis based on reconstituted human vaginal epithelium (RHVE) was used to study the expression and role of these C. albicans proteinases during infection and tissue damage of vaginal epithelium. Colonization of the RHVE by C. albicans SC5314 did not cause any visible epithelial damage 6 h after inoculation, although expression of SAP2, SAP9, and SAP10 was detected by reverse transcriptase PCR. However, significant epithelial damage was observed after 12 h, concomitant with the additional expression of SAP1, SAP4, and SAP5. Additional transcripts of SAP6 and SAP7 were detected at a later stage of the artificial infection (24 h). Similar SAP expression profiles were observed in three samples isolated from human patients with vaginal candidiasis. In experimental infection, secretion of antigens Sap1 to Sap6 by C. albicans was confirmed at the ultrastructural level by using polyclonal antisera raised against Sap1 to Sap6. Addition of the aspartyl proteinase inhibitors pepstatin A and the human immunodeficiency virus proteinase inhibitors ritonavir and amprenavir strongly reduced the tissue damage of the vaginal epithelia by C. albicans cells. Furthermore...

Recombinant Leishmania major Secreting Biologically Active Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Survives Poorly in Macrophages In Vitro and Delays Disease Development in Mice

Dumas, Carole; Muyombwe, Anthony; Roy, Gaétan; Matte, Claudine; Ouellette, Marc; Olivier, Martin; Papadopoulou, Barbara
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2003 EN
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809.66086%
Leishmania is an intracellular pathogen that replicates inside macrophages. Activated macrophages produce a specific subset of cytokines that play an important role in the control of Leishmania infections. As part of our interest in developing suicide parasites that produce abortive infections for the purposes of vaccination, we engineered recombinant Leishmania major strains producing biologically active granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). We showed that GM-CSF is being produced in the phagosomes of infected macrophages and that it can be detected in the culture supernatants of both infected macrophages and extracellular parasites. Our data support the notion that GM-CSF secreted by both developmental forms of recombinant L. major can activate macrophages to produce high levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and IL-18 and various chemokines including RANTES/CCL5, MIP-1α/CCL3, MIP-1β/CCL4, MIP-2/CXCL2, and MCP-1/CCL2, which enhance parasite killing. Indeed, GM-CSF-expressing parasites survive poorly in macrophages in vitro and produce delayed lesion development in susceptible BALB/c mice in vivo. Selective killing of intracellular Leishmania expressing cytokine genes capable of activating cellular responses may constitute a promising strategy to control and/or prevent parasitic infections.

Both Free-Living and Parasitic Nematodes Induce a Characteristic Th2 Response That Is Dependent on the Presence of Intact Glycans

Tawill, Salah; Le Goff, Laetitia; Ali, Fahimeda; Blaxter, Mark; Allen, Judith E.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
806.4583%
Infection with parasitic nematodes is characterized by the induction of a profound type 2 immune response. We have studied the role of glycans in the induction of the skewed type 2 response by antigens of the parasitic nematode Brugia malayi as well as the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Lymph node cells from BALB/c mice immunized with soluble extracts of the two nematodes showed distinct antigen-specific proliferation and cytokine production; however, both nematodes induced antigen-specific interleukin 4 (IL-4) production, demonstrating that the induction of a biased type 2 response is not unique to parasitic nematodes. Sodium periodate-treated soluble extracts of both nematodes consistently induced significantly less IL-4 production than the respective mock-treated extracts, indicating that glycans play a critical role in the induction of the Th2 immune response by these nematodes. The glycan-dependent induction of the Th2-potentiating cytokine IL-4 occurs by 72 h postinoculation. Our data suggest that glycan determinants common to nematodes act as ligands, displaying distinct molecular patterns that trigger the immune system to launch a biased Th2 immune response upon exposure to these organisms or their products. Further...

Phagocyte-Derived Reactive Oxygen Species Do Not Influence the Progression of Murine Blood-Stage Malaria Infections

Potter, S. M.; Mitchell, A. J.; Cowden, W. B.; Sanni, L. A.; Dinauer, M.; de Haan, J. B.; Hunt, N. H.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2005 EN
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800.03695%
Phagocyte-derived reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the clearance of malaria infections. We investigated the progression of five different strains of murine malaria in gp91phox−/− mice, which lack a functional NADPH oxidase and thus the ability to produce phagocyte-derived reactive oxygen species. We found that the absence of functional NADPH oxidase in the gene knockout mice had no effect on the parasitemia or total parasite burden in mice infected with either resolving (Plasmodium yoelii and Plasmodium chabaudi K562) or fatal (Plasmodium berghei ANKA, Plasmodium berghei K173 and Plasmodium vinckei vinckei) strains of malaria. This lack of effect was apparent in both primary and secondary infections with P. yoelii and P. chabaudi. There was also no difference in the presentation of clinical or pathological signs between the gp91phox−/− or wild-type strains of mice infected with malaria. Progression of P. berghei ANKA and P. berghei K173 infections was unchanged in glutathione peroxidase-1 gene knockout mice compared to their wild-type counterparts. The rates of parasitemia progression in gp91phox−/− mice and wild-type mice were not significantly different when they were treated with l-NG-methylarginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. These results suggest that phagocyte-derived reactive oxygen species are not crucial for the clearance of malaria parasites...

Discordant Influence of Blastomyces dermatitidis Yeast-Phase-Specific Gene BYS1 on Morphogenesis and Virulence▿

Krajaejun, Theerapong; Wüthrich, Marcel; Gauthier, Gregory M.; Warner, Thomas F.; Sullivan, Thomas D.; Klein, Bruce S.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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791.6477%
Blastomyces dermatitidis is a thermally induced dimorphic fungus capable of causing lung and systemic infections in immunocompetent animal hosts. With the publication of genomic sequences from three different strains of B. dermatitidis and the development of RNA interference as a gene-silencing tool, it has become possible to easily ascertain the virulence and morphological effects of knocking down the expression of candidate genes of interest. BYS1 (Blastomyces yeast-phase-specific 1), first identified by Burg and Smith, is expressed at high levels in yeast cells and is undetectable in mold. The deduced protein sequence of BYS1 has a putative signal sequence at its N terminus, opening the possibility that the BYS1-encoded protein is associated with the yeast cell wall. Herein, strains of B. dermatitidis with silenced expression of BYS1 were engineered and tested for morphology and virulence. The silenced strains produced rough-surfaced cultures on agar medium and demonstrated a propensity to form pseudohyphal cells on prolonged culture in vitro and in vivo, as measured in the mouse lung. Tests using a mouse model of blastomycosis with either yeast or spore inocula showed that the bys1-silenced strains were as virulent as control strains. Thus...

The Tetraspanin CD82 Is Specifically Recruited to Fungal and Bacterial Phagosomes prior to Acidification▿ †

Artavanis-Tsakonas, Katerina; Kasperkovitz, Pia V.; Papa, Eliseo; Cardenas, Michael L.; Khan, Nida S.; Van der Veen, Annemarthe G.; Ploegh, Hidde L.; Vyas, Jatin M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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798.9177%
CD82 is a member of the tetraspanin superfamily, whose physiological role is best described in the context of cancer metastasis. However, CD82 also associates with components of the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen presentation pathway, including class II MHC molecules and the peptide-loading machinery, as well as CD63, another tetraspanin, suggesting a role for CD82 in antigen presentation. Here, we observe the dynamic rearrangement of CD82 after pathogen uptake by imaging CD82-mRFP1 expressed in primary living dendritic cells. CD82 showed rapid and specific recruitment to Cryptococcus neoformans-containing phagosomes compared to polystyrene-containing phagosomes, similar to CD63. CD82 was also actively recruited to phagosomes containing other pathogenic fungi, including Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. Recruitment of CD82 to fungal phagosomes occurred independently of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. Recruitment was not limited to fungi, as bacterial organisms, including Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, also induced CD82 recruitment to the phagosome. CD82 intersected the endocytic pathway used by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), implicating CD82 in trafficking of small, pathogen-associated molecules. Despite its partial overlap with lysosomal compartments...

SR-Like RNA-Binding Protein Slr1 Affects Candida albicans Filamentation and Virulence

Ariyachet, Chaiyaboot; Solis, Norma V.; Liu, Yaoping; Prasadarao, Nemani V.; Filler, Scott G.; McBride, Anne E.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2013 EN
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807.2846%
Candida albicans causes both mucosal and disseminated infections, and its capacity to grow as both yeast and hyphae is a key virulence factor. Hyphal formation is a type of polarized growth, and members of the SR (serine-arginine) family of RNA-binding proteins influence polarized growth of both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus nidulans. Therefore, we investigated whether SR-like proteins affect filamentous growth and virulence of C. albicans. BLAST searches with S. cerevisiae SR-like protein Npl3 (ScNpl3) identified two C. albicans proteins: CaNpl3, an apparent ScNpl3 ortholog, and Slr1, another SR-like RNA-binding protein with no close S. cerevisiae ortholog. Whereas ScNpl3 was critical for growth, deletion of NPL3 in C. albicans resulted in few phenotypic changes. In contrast, the slr1Δ/Δ mutant had a reduced growth rate in vitro, decreased filamentation, and impaired capacity to damage epithelial and endothelial cells in vitro. Mice infected intravenously with the slr1Δ/Δ mutant strain had significantly prolonged survival compared to that of mice infected with the wild-type or slr1Δ/Δ mutant complemented with SLR1 (slr1Δ/Δ+SLR1) strain, without a concomitant decrease in kidney fungal burden. Histopathology, however...

Fbp1-Mediated Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway Controls Cryptococcus neoformans Virulence by Regulating Fungal Intracellular Growth in Macrophages

Liu, Tong-Bao; Xue, Chaoyang
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2014 EN
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815.05945%
Cryptococcus neoformans is a human fungal pathogen that often causes lung and brain infections in immunocompromised patients, with a high fatality rate. Our previous results showed that an F-box protein, Fbp1, is essential for Cryptococcus virulence independent of the classical virulence factors, suggesting a novel virulence control mechanism. In this study, we show that Fbp1 is part of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and we further investigated the mechanism of Fbp1 function during infection. Time course studies revealed that the fbp1Δ mutant causes little damage in the infected lung and that the fungal burden in the lung remains at a low but persistent level throughout infection. The fbp1Δ mutant cannot disseminate to other organs following pulmonary infection in the murine inhalation model of cryptococcosis but still causes brain infection in a murine intravenous injection model, suggesting that the block of dissemination of the fbp1Δ mutant is due to its inability to leave the lung. The fbp1Δ mutant showed a defect in intracellular proliferation after phagocytosis in a Cryptococcus-macrophage interaction assay, which likely contributes to its virulence attenuation. To elucidate the molecular basis of the SCF(Fbp1) E3 ligase function...

Temporal Kinetics and Quantitative Analysis of Cryptococcus neoformans Nonlytic Exocytosis

Stukes, Sabriya A.; Cohen, Hillel W.; Casadevall, Arturo
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
793.7749%
Cryptococcus neoformans is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of cryptococcosis, a disease that is often fatal to those with compromised immune systems. C. neoformans has the capacity to escape phagocytic cells through a process known as nonlytic exocytosis whereby the cryptococcal cell is released from the macrophage into the extracellular environment, leaving both the host and pathogen alive. Little is known about the mechanism behind nonlytic exocytosis, but there is evidence that both the fungal and host cells contribute to the process. In this study, we used time-lapse movies of C. neoformans-infected macrophages to delineate the kinetics and quantitative aspects of nonlytic exocytosis. We analyzed approximately 800 macrophages containing intracellular C. neoformans and identified 163 nonlytic exocytosis events that were further characterized into three subcategories: type I (complete emptying of macrophage), type II (partial emptying of macrophage), and type III (cell-to-cell transfer). The majority of type I and II events occurred after several hours of intracellular residence, whereas type III events occurred significantly (P < 0.001) earlier in the course of macrophage infection. Our results show that nonlytic exocytosis is a morphologically and temporally diverse process that occurs relatively rapidly in the course of macrophage infection.

Schistosoma mansoni Infection Impairs Antimalaria Treatment and Immune Responses of Rhesus Macaques Infected with Mosquito-Borne Plasmodium coatneyi

Semenya, Amma A.; Sullivan, JoAnn S.; Barnwell, John W.; Secor, W. Evan
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2012 EN
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Malaria and schistosomiasis are the world's two most important parasitic infections in terms of distribution, morbidity, and mortality. In areas where Plasmodium and Schistosoma species are both endemic, coinfections are commonplace. Mouse models demonstrate that schistosomiasis worsens a malaria infection; however, just as mice and humans differ greatly, the murine-infecting Plasmodium species differ as much from those that infect humans. Research into human coinfections (Schistosoma haematobium-Plasmodium falciparum versus Schistosoma mansoni-P. falciparum) has produced conflicting results. The rhesus macaque model provides a helpful tool for understanding the role of S. mansoni on malaria parasitemia and antimalarial immune responses using Plasmodium coatneyi, a malaria species that closely resembles P. falciparum infection in humans. Eight rhesus macaques were exposed to S. mansoni cercariae. Eight weeks later, these animals plus 8 additional macaques were exposed to malaria either through bites of infected mosquitos or intravenous inoculation. When malaria infection was initiated from mosquito bites, coinfected animals displayed increased malaria parasitemia, decreased hematocrit levels, and suppressed malaria-specific antibody responses compared to those of malaria infection alone. However...