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Active tuberculosis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis latent infection in patients with HIV/AIDS

GUTIERREZ, E. B.; GOMES, V.; PICONE, C. M.; SUGA, H.; ATOMIYA, A. N.
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Objectives Tuberculosis (TB) remains an important disease associated with HIV infection and AIDS in Brazil, even in a setting of free access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and TB treatment. In previous studies, isoniazid therapy (IT) for latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (LIMTb) was found to reduce the risk of TB by 62% in patients with a tuberculin test (TT)> 5 mm. The objectives of this study were to investigate the occurrence of TB, the prevalence of LIMTb and the coverage of the TT and IT, and to estimate the number of missed opportunities to prevent TB in patients with HIV/AIDS. Methods A random sample of patients with HIV/AIDS was selected; data from the medical files were obtained, and a TT was performed in consenting subjects. Results In the 203 subjects included in the study, TB occurrence was 13.3%, LIMTb prevalence was 20% and the coverage of the TT and IT was 59.2 and 55%, respectively. Patients with TB had a lower nadir CD4 cell count, but their CD4 recovery was comparable to that of non-TB patients. Patients with LIMTb always had a higher CD4 cell count. Conclusions By expanding the coverage of the TT and IT to nearly 100%, we could more than double the number of prevented cases of TB. TB prevention programmes must be reinforced to reduce the number of missed opportunities for diagnosis...

A dinâmica da distribuição espacial da infecção por HIV e mortalidade por Aids no município de São Paulo 1996-2007; Dynamics of spatial distribution of HIV infection and Aids mortality in São Paulo from 1996 to 2007

Oliveira, Danilo Rodrigues de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/10/2011 PT
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Tendo em vista o objetivo geral de analisar o perfil epidemiológico da epidemia de Aids, numa abordagem espaço-temporal dos casos de infecção por HIV e dos óbitos por Aids no município de São Paulo, de 1996 a 2007, o presente estudo usa um delineamento ecológico transversal. A unidade de análise é o Distrito Administrativo. A partir desta unidade são calculados os riscos relativos de se infectar por HIV e de ir a óbito por Aids no período definido. A análise temporal é feita a partir das situações dos anos 1996, 2000, 2004 e 2007, para cada gênero, que indicará a situação do momento e a tendência ao longo do tempo. A análise estatística espacial auxilia a localizar distritos de risco significativamente acima e/ou abaixo da média do município. Foram utilizados os dados referentes a óbitos por Aids por Distrito Administrativo Residencial do município de São Paulo para o período de 1996 a 2007, por gênero e faixa etária da OMS (Organização Mundial de Saúde), obtidos no SINAM do sítio do PRO-AIM (Programa de Aprimoramento da Informação de Mortalidade). Os dados referentes aos totais de população por distrito, ano, gênero e mesmas faixas etárias foram obtidos no sítio da Fundação SEADE. Para o ano 2000...

HIV infection and AIDS in a small municipality in Southeast Brazil

Eyer-Silva,Walter A; Basílio-de-Oliveira,Carlos Alberto; Morgado,Mariza G
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
922.4308%
OBJECTIVE: Studies on the aspects of HIV infection in small Brazilian municipalities are invaluable to appropriately design control strategies, better allocate resources, and improve health care services. The objective of the study was to assess the clinical and epidemiological aspects of HIV infection in a small municipality. METHODS: A descriptive study was carried out in Miracema, a small municipality in the northwestern area of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between July 1999 and December 2003. All HIV-infected adult patients followed up at the local HIV/AIDS Program were included. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics were prospectively assessed through standardized questionnaires. RESULTS: A total of 65 adult patients who attended the local HIV/AIDS Program were analyzed. Most (34) were women (male to female ratio: 0.9). An absolute predominance of patients who were born in Miracema or neighboring municipalities (94%), lived in Miracema (90.7%), were single (70.8%), attributed the acquisition of HIV infection to unprotected heterosexual intercourse (72.3%) and had a past history of snorting cocaine (27.7) was found Central nervous system disorders (including five cases of cryptococcal meningitis) and acute pulmonary pneumocystosis-like respiratory failure were major causes of morbidity. Most patients (56.9%) were at presented in advanced stages of HIV infection. CONCLUSIONS: The predominance of patients on advanced stages of HIV infection suggest the existence of a large pool of undiagnosed cases in the community. A major feature of the cohort was an inverted male to female ratio. Further investigations over a broader geographic area are urgently needed for better understanding the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of HIV infection in small Brazilian municipalities and rural areas.

National cross sectional study of views on sexual violence and risk of HIV infection and AIDS among South African school pupils

Andersson, Neil; Ho-Foster, Ari; Matthis, Judith; Marokoane, Nobantu; Mashiane, Vincent; Mhatre, Sharmila; Mitchell, Steve; Mokoena, Tamara; Monasta, Lorenzo; Ngxowa, Ncumisa; Salcedo, Manuel Pascual; Sonnekus, Heidi
Fonte: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. Publicador: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/10/2004 EN
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894.18555%
Objective To investigate the views of school pupils on sexual violence and on the risk of HIV infection and AIDS and their experiences of sexual violence.

Patterns of hospital care for patients with HIV infection and AIDS.

Johnson, A M; Shergold, C; Hawkins, A; Miller, R; Adler, M W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1993 EN
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OBJECTIVE--The aims were to describe the use of inpatient resources by patients with HIV infection and patients with AIDS; to examine trends in service use over time; and to provide data for planners concerned with service provision for HIV infection. SETTING--An inner London health district reporting 9% of AIDS cases nationally. DESIGN--Data on survival times and inpatient and day care use of resources were derived from existing patient records or collected prospectively between 1983 (when the first case of AIDS was diagnosed in the district) and 31 March 1990. SUBJECTS--A total of 488 HIV positive patients of whom 396 had been diagnosed as having AIDS were studied. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Inpatient days consumed per annum; trends in the number of bed days per person year with AIDS; the lifetime inpatient use per AIDS patient; and the influence of survival on service use estimates were determined. Altogether 16.4% of a total 17,785 hospital inpatient days were attributable to HIV positive patients who did not fulfil the criteria for AIDS. For patients with AIDS, there was an initial increase in the intensity of inpatient use in 1987 when a dedicated HIV ward was opened. After 1988, however, inpatient use fell to 30.8 bed days per person year with AIDS. Patients diagnosed after April 1987 had noticeably longer survival times than those diagnosed earlier (a median of 17-18 months compared with a median of 10-11 months). From 214 lifetime service use records...

Projections of HIV infections and AIDS cases to the year 2000.

Chin, J.; Sato, P. A.; Mann, J. M.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1990 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
832.3189%
After the recognition of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) in the early 1980s, uncertainty about the present and future dimensions of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection led to the development of many models to estimate current and future numbers of HIV infections and AIDS cases. The Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) of the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed an AIDS projection model which relies on available HIV seroprevalence data and on the annual rate of progression from HIV infection to AIDS for use in areas where reporting of AIDS cases is incomplete, and where scant data are available to quantify biological and human behavioural variables. Virtually all models, including the WHO model, have projected large increases in the number of AIDS cases by the early 1990s. Such short-term projections are considered relatively reliable since most of the new AIDS cases will develop in persons already infected with HIV. Longer-term prediction (10 years or longer) is less reliable because HIV prevalence and future trends are determined by many variables, most of which are still not well understood. WHO has now applied the Delphi method to project HIV prevalence from the year 1988 to mid-2000. This method attempts to improve the quality of the judgements and estimates for relatively uncertain issues by the systematic use of knowledgeable "experts". The mean value of the Delphi projections for HIV prevalence in the year 2000 is between 3 and 4 times the 1988 base estimate of 5.1 million; these projections have been used to obtain annual estimates of adult AIDS cases up to the year 2000. Coordinated HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes are considered by the Delphi participants to be potentially capable of preventing almost half of the new HIV infections that would otherwise occur between 1988 and the year 2000. However...

Focus on the Brain: HIV Infection and Alcoholism: Comorbidity Effects on Brain Structure and Function

Rosenbloom, Margaret J.; Sullivan, Edith V.; Pfefferbaum, Adolf
Fonte: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Publicador: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
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917.152%
Both HIV infection and alcohol abuse have negative effects on the brain, with some unique to each condition and others shared by both conditions. Investigators have used magnetic resonance imaging to study the size and integrity of various brain structures in participants with alcoholism, HIV infection, or both conditions and in healthy control subjects. In these studies, alcoholics exhibited enlarged, cerebrospinal fluid-filled spaces (i.e., ventricles) as well as tissue shrinkage in various brain regions (e.g., the corpus callosum and frontal cortex), whereas study participants with asymptomatic HIV infection showed few abnormalities. Those with both HIV infection and alcoholism also had these volume abnormalities, particularly if they had experienced an AIDS-defining event. Diffusion tensor imaging, which measures the integrity of white matter fibers, has identified abnormalities of constituents of these fibers in both diseases. Again, people with HIV infection plus alcoholism show the greatest abnormalities, particularly those with a history of an AIDS-defining event. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which assesses the levels of brain metabolites and selective neurotransmitters, has revealed different patterns of deficits in biochemical markers of brain integrity in individuals singly affected and a compounding of effects in individuals with both HIV infection and alcoholism. Finally...

Microbial Translocation Is Associated with Increased Monocyte Activation and Dementia in AIDS Patients

Ancuta, Petronela; Kunstman, Kevin J.; Kim, Eun-Young; Autissier, Patrick; Zaman, Tauheed; Stone, David; Morgello, Susan; Singer, Elyse J.; Wolinsky, Steven M.; Kamat, Anupa U; Wurcel, Alysse Gail; Mefford, Megan; Gabuzda, Dana Helga
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Elevated plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an indicator of microbial translocation from the gut, is a likely cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection. LPS induces monocyte activation and trafficking into brain, which are key mechanisms in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated dementia (HAD). To determine whether high LPS levels are associated with increased monocyte activation and HAD, we obtained peripheral blood samples from AIDS patients and examined plasma LPS by Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay, peripheral blood monocytes by FACS, and soluble markers of monocyte activation by ELISA. Purified monocytes were isolated by FACS sorting, and HIV DNA and RNA levels were quantified by real time PCR. Circulating monocytes expressed high levels of the activation markers CD69 and HLA-DR, and harbored low levels of HIV compared to CD4(^+) T-cells. High plasma LPS levels were associated with increased plasma sCD14 and LPS-binding protein (LBP) levels, and low endotoxin core antibody levels. LPS levels were higher in HAD patients compared to control groups, and were associated with HAD independently of plasma viral load and CD4 counts. LPS levels were higher in AIDS patients using intravenous heroin and/or ethanol, or with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection...

The Determinants of HIV Infection and Related Sexual Behaviors : Evidence from Lesotho

Corno, Lucia; de Walque, Damien
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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This paper analyzes the socioeconomic determinants of HIV infection and related sexual behaviors using the 2004 Lesotho Demographic and Health Survey. The authors find that in Lesotho education appears to have a protective effect: it is negatively associated with HIV infection (although not always significantly) and it strongly predicts preventive behaviors. The findings also show that married women who have extra-marital relationships are less likely to use a condom than non-married women. This is an important source of vulnerability that should be addressed in prevention efforts. The paper also analyzes HIV infection at the level of the couple. It shows that in 41 percent of the infected couples, only one of the two partners is HIV infected. Therefore, there are still opportunities for prevention inside the couple.

Who Gets AIDS and How? The Determinants of HIV Infection and Sexual Behaviors in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ghana, Kenya and Tanzania

de Walque, Damien
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
918.738%
This paper analyzes the determinants of HIV infection and associated sexual behaviors using data from the first five Demographic and Health Surveys to include HIV testing for a representative sample of the adult population. Emerging from a wealth of country relevant results, four important findings can be generalized. First, married women who engage in extra-marital sex are less likely to use condoms than single women when doing so. Second, having been in successive marriages is a significant risk-factor, as evidenced by the results on HIV infection and on sexual behaviors. Contrary to prima facie evidence, education is not associated positively with HIV status. But schooling is one of the most consistent predictors of behavior and knowledge: education predicts protective behaviors like condom use, use of counseling and testing, discussion among spouses and knowledge, but it also predicts a higher level of infidelity and a lower level of abstinence. Finally, male circumcision and female genital mutilation are often associated with sexual behaviors, practices, and knowledge related to AIDS. This might explain why in the analysis in the five countries there is no significant negative association between male circumcision and HIV status...

Survey of the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Nigerian Surgery Trainees to HIV-infected Persons and AIDS Patients

Ezeome, Emma R; Ajuwon, Johnson A; Ogundiran, Temidayo O; Adebamowo, Clement Adebayo
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Background: The incidence of HIV infection and AIDS is rising in Nigeria. Surgeons are at risk of occupationally acquired infection as a result of intimate contact with the blood and body fluids of patients. This study set out to determine the knowledge, attitude and risk perception of Nigerian surgery residents to HIV infection and AIDS. Methods: A self-administered postal questionnaire was sent to all surgery trainees in Nigeria in 1997. Results: Parenteral exposure to patients' blood was reported as occurring 92.5% times, and most respondents assessed their risk of becoming infected with HIV as being moderate at 1–5%. The majority of the respondents were not aware of the CDC guidelines on universal precautions against blood-borne pathogens. Most support a policy of routinely testing all surgical patients for HIV infection but 76.8% work in centers where there is no policy on parenteral exposure to patients' blood and body fluids. Most (85.6%) do not routinely use all the protective measures advocated for the reduction of transmission of blood borne pathogens during surgery, with the majority ascribing this to non-availability. Most want surgeons to be the primary formulators of policy on HIV and surgery while not completely excluding other stakeholders. Conclusions: The study demonstrates the level of knowledge...

HIV infection and AIDS in China, 1985 through 1994.

Yu, E S; Xie, Q; Zhang, K; Lu, P; Chan, L L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1996 EN
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OBJECTIVES. This paper analyzes data on the distribution of and risk factors for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in China. METHODS. Ten years of data on persons tested for HIV infection and AIDS and the proportion who tested positive were analyzed against the background of China's population count. The Chinese- and English-language literature on HIV and AIDS from 1985 through 1995 was also reviewed. RESULTS. Overall, more males than females had HIV infection. Intravenous drug use was the primary source of transmission, followed by heterosexual contacts. Only a small number of the persons tested were homosexual, but their proportion of HIV seropositivity ranked third to that of drug users; that of general hospital patients ranked fourth. CONCLUSIONS. HIV infection and AIDS in China began as a highly regionalized and largely rural problem in Yunnan Province. However, HIV infection and AIDS have become an emerging urban problem. HIV seropositivity is low among several groups thought to have an elevated risk.

Strategies for dealing with problems associated with use of services for HIV infection and AIDS out of region: views of providers and users.

Coyle, A.; McGrellis, S.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/06/1995 EN
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OBJECTIVES--To identify reasons why people with HIV infection and AIDS living within the former South West Thames Regional Health Authority use HIV and AIDS services outside the region, and to identify strategies for dealing with the problems associated with such use. DESIGN--Qualitative study consisting of interviews with individual subjects and focus groups. SETTING--Providers of services for patients with HIV infection and AIDS in South West Thames, central London, and Brighton. Users of such services resident in South West Thames. SUBJECTS--Thirty four South West Thames residents with HIV infection and AIDS who use or used services outside the former region; and 70 providers of services within and beyond South West Thames. RESULTS--Principal reasons for use of services out of the region were accessibility (15) and negative appraisals of local services (14). Three main strategies for dealing with the problems of such use were suggested by providers. These entailed introducing users of services outside the region to services in their locality (16); sharing the responsibility for care between providers in specialist centres and in the person's locality (10); and involving the person's general practitioner in their care (12). These strategies were deemed acceptable by 29...

HIV infection and AIDS in England and Wales: general practitioners' workload and contact with patients.

Gallagher, M; Foy, C; Rhodes, T; Philips, P; Setters, J; Moore, M; Naji, S; Donaldson, C; Bond, J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1990 EN
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In mid-1988 a postal survey was conducted of one in five general practitioners in England and Wales, to examine their contact with people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or with worries about HIV infection or AIDS. The response rate was 63.9%. Of the 3339 respondents 22.7% knew of an asymptomatic HIV positive patient within their practice, 5.4% knew of a symptomatic HIV positive patient and 6.4% knew of a patient with AIDS. The estimated annual rate for HIV-related consultations in general practice (including consultations with the 'worried well') was 6.5 per 1000 population. HIV-related consultations occurred more frequently in the four Thames health regions than elsewhere. A sample of 715 practitioners who reported consultations with HIV infected people or those with worries about infection in the previous month, were invited to keep a diary of HIV-related consultations for one week. The response rate to the diary was 64%. Nineteen per cent of the 273 consultations recorded in the diaries were initiated by homosexual men, 16.5% by injecting drug users, 10.3% by the sexual partners of people at risk of infection; 42.9% of consultations were not associated with recognized risk factors. The results indicate that general practitioners have substantial contact with patients with HIV infection...

Communicating surveillance, epidemiologic, and laboratory information on HIV infection and AIDS.

Greenspan, A L; Curran, J W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1991 EN
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As the epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has evolved over the past 10 years, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has been at the forefront of the scientific efforts that have characterized HIV-AIDS research. Because of CDC's central role in these efforts, the medical and public health communities have come to depend on the agency for prompt reporting of new developments related to the epidemiology of HIV infection and AIDS and for advice on risk management, prevention, and control. CDC disseminates this information through epidemiologic updates and prevention guidelines published in the periodical, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, through articles in scientific journals and summary tabulations of AIDS case data and HIV seroprevalence data, and through interviews and presentations at scientific meetings. These formal information dissemination activities are supplemented with training and support efforts directed at health care providers, health department and laboratory personnel, educators, and centralized HIV-AIDS information resources. As questions are answered, controversies resolved, and new research applications explored, CDC will continue to provide the medical and public health communities with the most recent epidemiologic information and recommendations developed to help direct efforts in HIV prevention and risk reduction.

Impact of HIV infection and AIDS on death rates in British Columbia and Canada.

Hogg, R S; Schechter, M T; Montaner, J S; Goldstone, I; Craib, K; O'Shaughnessy, M V
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/03/1994 EN
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OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of HIV infection and AIDS on death rates in British Columbia and Canada. DESIGN: Descriptive, population-based study. SETTING: British Columbia and Canada. PATIENTS: All people for whom HIV infection or AIDS was listed as the underlying cause of death in Canada and all provinces from 1987 to 1991, as reported to Statistics Canada, and all people for whom HIV infection or AIDS was listed as the underlying or antecedent cause of death in British Columbia and Vancouver from 1987 to 1992, as reported to the Division of Vital Statistics, British Columbia Ministry of Health. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age- and cause-specific patterns of death, and potential years of life lost (PYLLs) for men. RESULTS: From 1987 to 1991 a total of 4189 deaths from HIV infection and AIDS (in 3941 males and 248 females) in Canada and 686 such deaths (in 671 males and 15 females) in British Columbia were reported to Statistics Canada. The rate of death from HIV infection and AIDS was 1.39 times higher (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29 to 1.50) in British Columbia than in Canada as a whole and 1.95 times higher (95% CI 1.65 to 2.29) when HIV infection was associated with specified malignant neoplasms than with other related causes. The PYLLs from HIV infection and AIDS for men rose steadily in Canada...

International comparison of medical students' perceptions of HIV infection and AIDS.

Najem, G. R.; Okuzu, E. I.
Fonte: National Medical Association Publicador: National Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1998 EN
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This analysis compared medical students' perceptions of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in two cities in two countries with different cultural and educational backgrounds. A total of 292 first- and second-year medical students (45% sample) were surveyed from New Jersey Medical School and from Benin Medical School, Nigeria. Compared with the Benin students, the Newark medical students were significantly more knowledgeable and had more positive attitudes and behaviors regarding HIV infection and AIDS. Misperceptions regarding certain modes of transmission of HIV were significantly higher among the Benin students than the Newark students. Compared with the Benin students, the Newark students had more frequent sexual intercourse and used condoms more frequently, but the Benin students had more sex partners. Perception of personal risk and concern of contracting AIDS was significantly higher among the Newark students than the Benin students. These results indicate it is important that medical educators in medical schools convey accurate information to improve medical students' perception regarding HIV infection and AIDS.

Infecção pelo HIV e AIDS em um pequeno município no Sudeste brasileiro; HIV infection and AIDS in a small municipality in Southeast Brazil

Eyer-Silva, Walter A; Basílio-de-Oliveira, Carlos Alberto; Morgado, Mariza G
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2005 ENG
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OBJETIVO: Estudos sobre as características da infecção pelo HIV em pequenos municípios brasileiros são de grande importância para o desenho de estratégias de intervenção, para a alocação apropriada de recursos e melhoria da assistência. O objetivo foi investigar as características clínicas e epidemiológicas da infecção pelo HIV em um pequeno município. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo descritivo em Miracema, município do noroeste do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, entre julho de 1999 e dezembro de 2003. Foram analisados todos os pacientes adultos com diagnóstico de infecção pelo HIV atendidos no Programa Municipal de HIV/Aids. Dados clínicos e epidemiológicos foram coletados prospectivamente por meio de questionário padronizado. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados no total 65 pacientes adultos que receberam atendimento no Programa Municipal de HIV/Aids. A maioria (34) eram mulheres (razão de sexos homem-mulher de 0,9). Encontrou-se preponderância absoluta de pacientes que nasceram em Miracema ou municípios vizinhos (94%), moravam em Miracema (90,7%), eram solteiros (70,8%), atribuíam a aquisição da infecção ao contato heterossexual desprotegido (72,3%) e tinham antecedentes de uso de cocaína inalada (27,7%). Desordens do sistema nervoso central (incluindo cinco casos de neurocriptococose) e insuficiência respiratória aguda semelhante à pneumocistose pulmonar foram as principais causas de morbidade. A maioria dos pacientes (56...

Minibus taxi drivers' sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Ncama,Busisiwe; Mchunu,Gugu; Naidoo,Joanne; Majeke,Sisana; Pillay,Padmini; Myeza,Thandazile; Ndebele,Thandiwe
Fonte: Curationis Publicador: Curationis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
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926.5771%
Risky sexual behaviours in South Africa are a major contributing factor to the spread of HIV infection and AIDS. HIV infection amongst minibus taxi drivers is a concern, because these people belong to an occupational group that exhibits risky behaviours due to the demands of their work. Given the high vulnerability of minibus taxi drivers, exploring the sexual beliefs and health-related sexual practices of this group will assist in planning targeted interventions. The objectives of this study were to assess the level of knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding HIV infection and AIDS amongst minibus taxi drivers. An exploratory descriptive study was conducted using a pre-tested questionnaire to explore and describe sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in a convenience sample of 175 minibus taxi drivers. Permission to undertake the study was obtained from the KwaZulu-Natal Taxi Alliance and individuals who participated in the study. Data analysis were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 13.0. The study revealed that minibus taxi drivers are one of the high- risk groups in the spread of HIV infection and AIDS; they lack necessary education and need attention in relation to control and prevention of the spread of HIV and AIDS. Multiple sexual partners are relatively common amongst the minibus taxi drivers. Violence against women and even forceful sexual intercourse in the belief that women should tolerate it to keep the family together was reported. There is a need for intervention programmes with a focus on minibus taxi drivers and similar high-risk groups. Prevention activities should incorporate the distribution of condoms amongst this group and HIV prevention educational programmes...

HIV infection and AIDS in a small municipality in Southeast Brazil

Eyer-Silva,Walter A; Basílio-de-Oliveira,Carlos Alberto; Morgado,Mariza G
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
922.4308%
OBJECTIVE: Studies on the aspects of HIV infection in small Brazilian municipalities are invaluable to appropriately design control strategies, better allocate resources, and improve health care services. The objective of the study was to assess the clinical and epidemiological aspects of HIV infection in a small municipality. METHODS: A descriptive study was carried out in Miracema, a small municipality in the northwestern area of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between July 1999 and December 2003. All HIV-infected adult patients followed up at the local HIV/AIDS Program were included. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics were prospectively assessed through standardized questionnaires. RESULTS: A total of 65 adult patients who attended the local HIV/AIDS Program were analyzed. Most (34) were women (male to female ratio: 0.9). An absolute predominance of patients who were born in Miracema or neighboring municipalities (94%), lived in Miracema (90.7%), were single (70.8%), attributed the acquisition of HIV infection to unprotected heterosexual intercourse (72.3%) and had a past history of snorting cocaine (27.7) was found Central nervous system disorders (including five cases of cryptococcal meningitis) and acute pulmonary pneumocystosis-like respiratory failure were major causes of morbidity. Most patients (56.9%) were at presented in advanced stages of HIV infection. CONCLUSIONS: The predominance of patients on advanced stages of HIV infection suggest the existence of a large pool of undiagnosed cases in the community. A major feature of the cohort was an inverted male to female ratio. Further investigations over a broader geographic area are urgently needed for better understanding the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of HIV infection in small Brazilian municipalities and rural areas.