Página 1 dos resultados de 27 itens digitais encontrados em 0.017 segundos

The development and implementation of ICT policy for schools in the Irish post-primary context: a critical analysis

Johnston, Keith T
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
1068.0385%
peer-reviewed; Since the mid 1990’s there has been an increased emphasis on ICTs in national educational policies, particularly in developed countries. This has been reflected in increased levels of Government expenditure coupled with the development and implementation of specific initiatives to support the use of ICTs in schools. This emphasis has been based on the perceived educational potential of the Internet coupled with the global adoption of concepts such as the ‘knowledge/information society’ and the ‘knowledge economy.’ In Ireland the first ever policy for ICT in schools entitled Schools IT2000: A Policy Framework for the New Millennium was launched by the Department of Education and Science (DES) in 1997. Schools IT2000 aimed to address the development of technology use in primary and post-primary schools and focused on four main areas: technology infrastructure, training for teachers, pilot projects and support services. This study aims to establish how this policy was developed, to identify the factors that influence its development and to establish the outcomes arising from its implementation. It takes a critical qualitative approach drawing on nineteen interviews with policy makers and actors who were prominent at differing levels with respect to this initiative...

Digital divide in post primary schools

Marcus-Quinn, Ann; McGarr, Oliver
Fonte: Research Publishing.net Publicador: Research Publishing.net
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bookPart; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
829.7326%
peer-reviewed; This research study developed curricular specific open educational resources for the teaching of poetry at Junior Cycle in Irish post-primary schools. It aimed to capture the collaborative design and development process used in the development of the digital resources and describe and evaluate the implementation of the resources by teachers in different educational contexts. The research employed a case study approach as it was seen as the most suitable methodological approach to capture the richness of the design and implementation of the resource, which was developed in collaboration with six practicing teachers and implemented in three different schools with various classroom settings. Through the use of semi-structured teachers interviews, student questionnaires and classroom observations the research methodology employed aimed to capture the richness of the experience from the participants’ perspective. The study found that the resource was adopted in very different ways across the participating schools. The study raises questions about the use of digital resources in schools and the possible emergence of a second digital divide, which is not the use of the technology and the extent to which it is used in a constructive and meaningful way to enhance the students learning experience

Worrying times: an investigation into the ramifications of the removal of the ex-quota allocation for guidance counselling in seven post-primary schools in the east of Ireland

Connor, Brian
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/masterThesis (Taught); all_ul_research; ul_theses_dissertations
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
952.4872%
non-peer-reviewed; The overarching aim of this research was to examine guidance counsellors’ experiences of the removal of the ex-quota allocation for guidance counselling in the Irish post-primary sector post Budget 2012. As the researcher’s original study (Connor, 2013) examined the same topic, this follow-on investigation specifically focussed on the two areas of professionalism and the role of guidance counsellors and the wellbeing of practitioners in current practice. Similar to Connor (2013) an interpretivist paradigm underpins the current study. Semi-structured interviews were held with seven qualified practitioners in the East of Ireland to examine their perceptions and experiences of the allocation removal on their professional role, the services they provide to students, and the overall guidance profession. The findings indicate that some confusion still exists within the Irish post-primary sector about the meaning of ‘appropriate’ guidance as articulated in the Education Act, 1998. In addition, there appears to be a significant gap between policies from the Department of Education and Skills (DES) relating to a Whole-School Approach (WSA) to guidance and current practice in post-primary schools. The findings also identify some uncertainty about the service provided by guidance counsellors in the school system. Finally...

Examining the role of the ICT coordinator in providing technical and pedagogical support in Irish post-primary schools

McDonagh, Adrian
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: Master thesis (Research); all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations; none
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
1261.336%
peer-reviewed; Since computers were first introduced into the Irish Education system in 1977 many millions have been spent on this technology. However despite spending large amounts of money, little empirical evidence exists to show that ICT has improved how teachers teach or how students learn. A key figure in attempting to integrate ICT into the Education system is the ICT coordinator. This research offers a full investigation into the role of ICT Coordinators in Irish post-primary schools. The research method employed in this study is sequential mixed method which begins with a questionnaire aimed at a large audience. The invited audience was any ICT coordinator working in post-primary schools within a 45mile radius of Limerick city. After analyzing the data quantitatively a sample of those who participated in the first section of the study were invited to participate in semi-structured interviews to further probe the findings from section 1 and also engage in more open ended questions better suited to interviews. This formed the qualitative section of this study. The research findings show that many of the barriers that have existed and been reported in the literature in the past regarding a teachers reluctance to integrate ICT into the classroom have largely faded. This is due in no small measure to continued investment in the infrastructure in schools among other factors. In acknowledgement of this achievement...

An investigation into the effectiveness of using CALL to teach Irish to 1st year students in a post primary school: a case study approach.

Hehir, Agnes Geraldine
Fonte: University of Limerick, Department of Education and Professional Studies Publicador: University of Limerick, Department of Education and Professional Studies
Tipo: Master thesis (Taught); all_ul_research; ul_theses_dissertations; none
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
716.8953%
non-peer-reviewed; It is imperative that the teacher is centre-stage in computer aided pedagogical settings to ensure maximum potential is attained. Constructivist theories challenge teachers to create learning environments that suit their students‘ diverse needs and abilities. The teacher ought to facilitate the student to increase knowledge retention, user satisfaction and motivate them to enjoy the learning experience. Pedagogical content is vital to effectively integrate computer aided learning in schools. Teacher instruction and facilitation is important to ensure technology is adopted and adhered to. This study utilizes an age and content appropriate software to assist twelve year old students in a post-primary school with language teaching. This is a mixed ability class; therefore participants portray a broad range of learning styles and learning abilities. Participants are divided into two groups, the control group and the treatment group. Each participant in the control group interacts with the multimedia software which is demonstrated to them in a group setting by the teacher to ensure the navigational structure of the Software is understood. This study is an attempt to ascertain if a computer aided interactive language resource enhances the pedagogical context and influences learning outcomes. This study uses a case study...

A case study investigation on the safe use of the internet by 12-18 year olds in an Irish post primary school.

Lawlor, Louise
Fonte: University of Limerick, Department of Education and Professional Studies Publicador: University of Limerick, Department of Education and Professional Studies
Tipo: Master thesis (Research); all_ul_research; ul_theses_dissertations; none
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
1039.8449%
non-peer-reviewed; This case study examines the nature of Internet use by students and teachers in a post primary school and attempts to determine to what extent students’ online activities reflect unsafe practices and patterns. It investigates how much students and teachers know about Internet safety and establishes from what source students have received information on safe Internet use to date. Finally, it investigates whether the study school is following recommended guidelineson Internet safety strategies. Research involved a mixed methodology approach. A variety of sources were used to gather information thus ensuring the notion of triangulation. Teaching staff and students from the study school were surveyed, semi structured interviews with management and teaching staff were conducted, comments made from teachers concerning students’ safe Internet use were noted and relevant ICT documentation was reviewed. The study identified that students and teachers are using the Internet both at home and in school. Overall, students are involved in reasonably safe practices whilst online, however, there are a small minority engaging in what might be deemed ‘risky’ behaviour. In relation to ensuring students e-safety, some teachers have provided training to students on safe Internet use. In addition...

Parametric pedagogy: integrating parametric CAD in Irish post-primary schools

McGarr, Oliver; Seery, Niall
Fonte: Design and Technology Association Publicador: Design and Technology Association
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
951.8661%
peer-reviewed; Technology education in Irish post-primary schools is undergoing significant change. In recent years the syllabi of all technology-related subjects have been revised. A new subject, Design and Communication Graphics, has replaced the traditional Technical Drawing subject. This new subject aims to develop students’ spatial awareness and graphical communication skills in the context of design. Parametric CAD forms a significant element of the subject. This research paper reports on a study into the use of parametric CAD by teachers in Irish post-primary schools. The research found that teachers were enthusiastic and welcomed the inclusion of the software as part of their teaching. However, the novel teaching environment was challenging which had a significant affect on their pedagogical approaches. The findings highlight the need for affective teacher professional development that explores the declarative as well as the procedural knowledge required for mastery of the CAD software.

The elephant in the room: the influence of prevailing pedagogical practice on the integration of Design and Communication Graphics in the post-primary classroom

McGarr, Oliver
Fonte: Design Education Research Group, Loughborough Design School Publicador: Design Education Research Group, Loughborough Design School
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bookPart; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
944.1292%
peer-reviewed; Senior Cycle Technology subjects in Irish post-primary schools have recently been updated. One subject, Technical Drawing, has been replaced with a new subject called Design and Communication Graphics (DCG). The new subject is quite different in content and is also quite different in its focus highlighting an emphasis on communication and design. This paper aims to explore the influence of prevailing pedagogical practices on the integration of the new DCG syllabus. The paper firstly examines the current pedagogical practices within Irish post-primary classrooms before moving on to discuss some of the emerging challenges and opportunities in light of this evidence. The paper argues that without challenges to prevailing societal attitudes towards technology education in schools it is unlikely that the changes in pedagogy required to fully embrace the philosophy of the new syllabus will be achieved.

Evaluation of the ‘Action for Life’ programme at senior cycle in Irish post-primary schools

MacPhail, Ann
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
1037.9063%
peer-reviewed; It is widely accepted that physical inactivity is one of the key threats to worldwide population health and that physical activity levels in childhood and adolescence have long-term effects that influence the health of a person into adulthood. There has been an increase in interest in relation to how school (physical education) curricula can be effective in developing the life styles that may help children to become active adults, and how schools utilize their full potential to promote health and increase active lifestyles (Trudeau & Shephard, 2005; Fox, Cooper & McKenna, 2004; Wallhead & Buckworth, 2004).

The promotion of continuity between physical education and co-curricular physical activities: an Irish perspective

MacPhail, Ann; Slattery, John
Fonte: Association for Physical Education United Kingdom Publicador: Association for Physical Education United Kingdom
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
744.1869%
peer-reviewed; The main purpose of this study was to identify the extent to which Irish physical education teachers promote continuity between curricular physical education and extra-curricular physical activities in post-primary schools. The latter denotes the provision of activities outside the formal (physical education) curriculum, which are not compulsory for all students but offered as optional activities (Penney & Harris, 1997), now also commonly referred to as out-of-school-hours learning or provision. Two particular issues discussed are ways in which physical education can help promote physical activity outside of the physical education class and the identification of factors that may hinder continuity between physical education and extra-curricular activities. The physical education curriculum, staffing and the school ethos arose as elements that have the potential to promote continuity between physical education and extra-curricular activities in Irish post-primary schools.

Biology by inquiry an invervention programme in Irish post primay schools

Ryan, Emma
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/masterThesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
1269.9931%
peer-reviewed; The publication of ‗Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation‘ (2006) by the Irish Government and of ‗Task Force on the Physical Sciences‘ (2002) recognises the decline in the number of students taking up sciences at both senior cycle and into third level and the dramatic need for a change in how science is being taught in Irish post-primary schools. The OECD report (2006), Evolution of Student Interest in Science and Technology Studies, recommended that teaching should concentrate more on scientific concepts rather than on the retention of information. The central aim of this thesis is to gain an insight into the attitudes and perceptions of qualified science and biology teachers and students towards the use of Inquiry based teaching and learning in the Irish Post-Primary Classroom and investigate the extent to which the principles of scientific inquiry teaching and learning are being practiced in the Senior Cycle Biology classroom from a teacher and student perspective. Inquiry-based learning requires students to develop scientific process skills and an understanding of the science content while working in a pedagogical manner that combines hands-on activities with student-centred discussion and discovery of concepts. Many educational theorists have listed advantages associated with inquiry-based learning but the principle advantages for students is that they think critically for themselves; providing them with the tools to be lifelong learners and good future scientists. This research study was divided into three parts...

An investigation into the factors that affect the pedagogical progression of information and communication technology in post primary schools in Ireland

Hayles, Marie
Fonte: University of Limerick, Department of Education and Professional Studies Publicador: University of Limerick, Department of Education and Professional Studies
Tipo: Master thesis (Taught); all_ul_research; ul_theses_dissertations; none
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
1078.6937%
non-peer-reviewed; An investigation into the factors that affect the pedagogical progression of information and communication technology in post primary schools in Ireland Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has the potential to transform the methods in which teachers teach and students learn. ICT, such as computers and the internet, can enhance the quality of teaching and learning and expand educational opportunities. The objective of this paper is to investigate the factors that lead to the pedagogical progression of information and communication technology (ICT) in post primary schools in Ireland. This thesis examines the use of ICT in Irish schools under the following headings: technical support; leadership; ICT in the classroom, pedagogical integration of technology, hardware and broadband; software and digital content; funding; teacher professional development and innovative use of ICT in the classroom. Quantitave and qualitative data was collected from six Irish post primary schools in the form of questionnaires, interviews and observations. This study found that the use of technology in schools has significantly increased in the past decade, due to improved ICT infrastructures, guidance from government policies promoting the integration of ICT in teaching and learning and investment for technology in education. However...

Exploring masculinities – the sequel: an examination of the views and attitudes of Irish parents and a sample of journalists towards the exploration of masculinities with young men at senior cycle

Fonte: University of Limerick, Department of Education and Professional Studies Publicador: University of Limerick, Department of Education and Professional Studies
Tipo: Doctoral thesis; all_ul_research; ul_theses_dissertations; none
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
537.78156%
non-peer-reviewed; The Exploring Masculinities Programme (EM) was developed and piloted in 19 boy’s schools in Ireland during 1997-1999, with funding from the European Social Fund. The programme aimed, amongst other things to investigate different perceptions and experiences of masculinity and to promote equality among and between the sexes. Following the launch of the programme, EM was the subject of a considerable amount of media coverage, which was mainly critical of the programme. Amongst the most vocal critics of EM were certain parent groups and a number of journalists. In this context, the Minister for Education and Science commissioned the National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (NCCA) to conduct an examination of, amongst other things, the media reaction to EM. The planned dissemination of the programme lost its momentum and in 2005, EM was only being used as a resource in a small number of schools. The current study aims to establish the views and attitudes of Irish parents and a sample of journalists towards the treatment of masculinity related issues with young men at senior cycle. There were four phases to the research. Phase one consisted of a survey of a national sample of parents. Phase two involved interviews with twenty-four of these parents. Phase three consisted of surveys with representatives of the five national parent associations in Ireland. The fourth phase of the research involved interviews with four journalists who had participated in the media debate on EM...

Technology leadership or technology somnambulism? Exploring the discourse of integration amongst ICT coordinators.

McDonagh, Adrian; McGarr, Oliver
Fonte: Taylor and Francis Publicador: Taylor and Francis
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
629.80066%
peer-reviewed; This research aimed to explore Information and Communication Technology (ICT) coordinators’ discourse in relation to ICT integration in a sample of Irish post-primary schools. As ICT leaders in their schools, how they conceptualise ICT significantly influences school-based policy and use. The research involved semi-structured interviews with a random sample of nine ICT coordinators in the Mid-west region of Ireland. The study found that the coordinators drew heavily on the prevailing policy discourse when justifying the use of ICT in schools. However, they tended to see the evolution of ICT as something beyond their control and perceived ‘progress’ only in relation to hardware acquisition. The findings suggest that the shift from ‘electronic janitor’ to pedagogical leader (Lobos, 2008) is in its infancy in Irish schools. Policy makers may need to take greater cognisance of the importance of pedagogical leadership within a context dominated by a focus on acquiring hardware and resources. At a broader level educators need to define their collective vision for ICT, rather than placing sole responsibility on a single agent of change

Preparing physical education teachers for the reality of teaching in schools: the case of one physical education teacher education (PETE) programme

Hartley, Therese
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/masterThesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
517.9538%
peer-reviewed; The purpose of this research is to determine the ways in which learning opportunities within the physical education teacher education (PETE) programme are continued in practice by beginning and experienced physical education teachers in post-primary schools. The project identifies the extent to which particular PETE programme experiences and opportunities are relevant to beginning and experienced teachers, establishing the extent to which what teachers need to consider as practitioners is part of the discursive dialogue in PETE programmes. There is a necessity for such a study because, firstly, previous studies question the effect of PETE programmes with respect to more familiar practices observed and practiced in school settings (Matanin and Collier, 2003). Secondly, Irish PETE has yet to contribute to the current international debate of content knowledge within PETE programmes (Siedentop, 2002; Tsangaridou, 2002) and it is imperative that it is conversant with the issues, and actively contributes to, the expanding international research on PETE. Zeichner & Conklin's (2008) framework for thinking about teacher education programmes provides a way to highlight the substantive features of the PETE programme...

Teacher responses to inquiry-based pedagogy in Irish post-primary schools : case studies on the use of a virtual chemistry laboratory as a vehicle for educational change.

Donnelly, Dermot
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: Doctoral thesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations; none
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
1164.27516%
peer-reviewed; The lack of uptake of science subjects in Post-Primary Schools (Secondary/High Schools) and on to university is a continuous cause for concern, both nationally and internationally. In the Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation Report (2006 – 2013), the Irish government highlights the need for a greater focus on investigative approaches, the assessment of practical work, and the more effective use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). The National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (NCCA) are currently attempting to address these issues through a revision of the current Irish science syllabi. This project describes the application of a Virtual Chemistry Laboratory (VCL), developed at Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, to the Irish context in an attempt to address the aforementioned issues. The research consisted of 4 stages employing primarily qualitative data collection methods. Stage 1 entailed interviews with teachers and educational stakeholders around issues relating to the use of a VCL within the Irish education system. Stage 2 involved a case study of 5 teachers integrating the VCL into their classroom practice in whatever manner they saw fit. Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) was used as a research lens to capture features of teachers’ practice. Stage 3 followed on from Stage 2 with a case study of 4 teachers directed to use the VCL in a guided inquiry manner. Research tools included Inquiry Science Implementation Scale (ISIS)...

An investigation into the integration of mathematics and science at junior cycle in Irish mathematics and science at junior cycle in Irish post primary schools

Treacy, Páraic
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
956.1724%
peer-reviewed; Within the mathematics education community there have been calls for a greater range of assessment practices as well as a more holistic approach to learning as research has shown that the current approach to instruction that has generally been adopted is producing students who struggle to solve problems and display large gaps in their Mathematical knowledge and understanding. One of the main necessities, according to research, is the need for mathematics to be placed in context and, thus, linked with other subjects. As such, a range of international education groups (NCTM, NRC, SSMA, Curriculum Corporation) have lent their support to the drive to integrate mathematics with other subject areas, especially science, within second level education. Attempts at integrating mathematics and science have been made but no definitive, widely adopted teaching model has been developed to date. Research suggests that hands-on, practical, pupil-centred, authentic activities should form a central element when designing an effective model for the integration of mathematics and science. The ‘Authentic Instruction’ model, developed by Fred Newmann and his associates in the early 1990’s, provides the basis for a model for the integration of mathematics and science as it is integrative in its very nature...

Lifestyles and gendered patterns of leisure and sporting interests among Irish adolescents

MacPhail, Ann; Collier, Connie; O'Sullivan, Mary
Fonte: Routledge Taylor & Francis Publicador: Routledge Taylor & Francis
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
516.9991%
peer-reviewed; This paper strives to provide an insight into the multifaceted relationships that young people have, examining the social, cultural and institutional discourses which shape their lives. We set out to discuss, from an empirical poststructuralist perspective, the way in which Irish adolescents write about the reality of their lives and privilege certain practices and forms of subjectivity. We are particularly interested in the role and significance of physical activity in the lives of young people, asking what institutional and cultural discourses are brought into play to construct particular identities and social practices associated with leisure and sporting interests. In an effort to generate more complex understandings of patterns of leisure and sporting interests, we combine two forms of analysis to explore the hows (discourse analysis) and whats (content analysis) of the narratives (Smith & Sparkes, 2005). This paper focuses on a purposeful sample of 168 written narratives of Irish post-primary students (14 to 17 years of age), chosen to represent the gender of students, a range of rural and urban school locales from different geographic locations and single-sex and co-educational schools. We focus on the inter-relationships between (1) school...

Implications for Irish curricular dissemination / implementation drawing on principal and teacher insight; Curriculum dissemination and implementation in Ireland: principal and teacher insight

Halbert, John; MacPhail, Ann
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
621.3054%
peer-reviewed; In an effort to understand interpretations of new and revised physical education syllabuses, and conditions that appear to strengthen or weaken the desire to introduce them, this paper draws on insights provided by principals and physical education teachers into the efficient and effective implementation of syllabus within Irish post-primary schools. Situating the discussion within the area of managing curriculum change (Fullan, 2004), we examine how the various elements of the Irish education system are involved in providing support for such curriculum developments. Using principals’ and teachers’ perspectives on the implementation of the revised junior cycle physical education syllabus we suggest how the dynamics within the education system might change to provide effective dissemination and implementation of new and revised senior cycle physical education syllabuses. We discuss to what extent it may be possible to map the community of practice notion (Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 1999; Lave & Wenger, 1991) onto the Irish education landscape, seeking to establish how it would work and what might be some of the most pressing issues.

Teacher professional development and ICT: an investigation of teachers studying a postgraduate award in ICT in education

McGarr, Oliver; O'Brien, J.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis (Routledge) Publicador: Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
565.75074%
peer-reviewed; The Schools IT2000 initiative, launched in 1997, was the first large-scale attempt to integrate ICT into teaching and learning in the Irish education system. Prior to its launch computer use in Irish schools was inhibited by the absence of a clearly defined policy. During the 1990s, in the absence of a national policy, schools began to develop IT skills type courses resulting in the dominance of the acquisition of basic IT skills at post-primary level ref? The sporadic use of ICT in post-primary schools was reflected in a number of studies conducted in the nineties, which found considerable differences in the level of exposure students received to ICT. These studies also found little use of ICT in teaching and learning (McKenna et al, 1993; Drury, 1995; Mulkeen, 1997). In response to the low levels of use across the curriculum a central aim of the Schools IT2000 initiative was to provide in-service to all teachers to enable them to develop the necessary skills to integrate ICT in teaching and learning. In order to achieve this aim a training continuum was developed with the objective of enabling teachers to progress from novice to expert users of information technology in education. Short-term in-service courses were initially offered to all post-primary teachers in the state. These courses introduced basic IT skills and to date have trained 59% of post-primary teachers in the basic use of ICT (NPADC...