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Carbono total e δ13C em agregados do solo sob vegetação nativa e pastagem no bioma cerrado; Total carbon and δ13C in soil aggregation under native vegetation and pasture in the brazilian cerrado biome

COSTA JUNIOR, Ciniro; PICCOLO, Marisa de Cássia; SIQUEIRA NETO, Marcos; CAMARGO, Plínio Barbosa de; CERRI, Carlos Clemente; BERNOUX, Martial
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
380.70926%
Diferentes sistemas de uso e manejo alteram o teor de carbono no solo (C), porém diminuições no C do solo têm sido reportadas quando áreas de Cerrado nativo são convertidas em pastagem. Disso resulta a necessidade da realização de pesquisas em diferentes sistemas e condições edafoclimáticas, a fim de elucidar as tendências encontradas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a agregação, os teores de C e a abundância natural de δ13C do solo em uma área cultivada há nove anos sob lavoura seguida de 20 anos sob pastagem, a qual atualmente apresenta sinais de degradação (PA), comparando-a a uma vegetação nativa no bioma Cerrado (CE) que ocorre em área adjacente. As áreas de estudo estão localizadas no município de Rio Verde (GO), em solo classificado como Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, de textura argilosa. Em amostras de solo coletadas nas camadas de 0-5, 5-10 e 10-20 cm de profundidade, foram determinados a distribuição de agregados estáveis em água (micro, meso e macroagregados), o diâmetro médio aritmético (DMA) e geométrico (DMG), os teores de C total e de δ13C, o tempo de residência média do C (TRM) e a fração da matéria orgânica leve livre (FLL). Os resultados indicaram que o uso sob lavoura seguido de pastagem reduziu em 21 % o estoque de C original...

Inter-relação biomassa vegetal subterrânea-estabilidade de agregados-erosão hídrica em solo submetido a diferentes formas de manejo; Interrelation of underground plant biomass with soil aggregate stability and rainfall erosion of a soil under different managements

Volk, Leandro Bochi da Silva; Cogo, Neroli Pedro
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
389.34664%
O aumento da biomassa vegetal subterrânea e da estabilidade dos agregados do solo pelo seu manejo adequado aumentam sua capacidade para infiltrar água da chuva e resistir à erosão hídrica. Baseado nesta premissa, foi realizado um estudo de erosão em campo, sob chuva simulada, na Estação Experimental Agronômica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - EEA/UFRGS, em Eldorado do Sul (RS), no verão de 2003/2004, utilizando um experimento de manejo do solo com 7,5 anos de duração. O objetivo da pesquisa foi investigar relações entre variáveis de manejo e de erosão, relacionadas à história de uso e manejo do solo e suas condições físicas superficiais momentâneas, criadas por tratamentos de seu preparo e de cobertura por resíduo cultural, os quais foram aplicados imediatamente antes da realização de testes de erosão com chuva simulada. Utilizou-se um Argissolo Vermelho distrófico típico, com textura superficial francoargilo- arenosa e declividade média de 0,115 m m-1. Foram estudadas quatro seqüências culturais, com ou sem preparo (gradagem) e cobertura (resíduo cultural) do solo. Realizaram-se três testes de erosão com chuva simulada, cada um na intensidade de 64 mm h-1 e duração de 1,5 h, usando o aparelho simulador de braços rotativos. Avaliaram-se a massa de raízes mortas das plantas...

Relações entre tamanho de sedimentos erodidos, velocidade da enxurrada, rugosidade superficial criada pelo preparo e tamanho de agregados em solo submetido a diferentes manejos; Relationships between size of eroded sediments, runoff velocity, surface roughness created by tillage, and size of aggregates in a soil submmited to different managements

Volk, Leandro Bochi da Silva; Cogo, Neroli Pedro
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
384.5382%
Vários fatores determinam a seletividade do processo de erosão hídrica pluvial no que se refere ao tamanho dos sedimentos transportados na enxurrada. Dentre eles, destacam-se a intensidade da chuva e da enxurrada a ela associada, a textura e o grau de consolidação da camada superficial do solo, a forma em que a erosão ocorre (entre sulcos, sulco ou voçoroca), a cobertura do solo por resíduos culturais, o microrrelevo do terreno ou a rugosidade superficial resultante do seu preparo e o tamanho e a estabilidade dos agregados do solo. Considerando isso, realizou-se este trabalho com o propósito de estabelecer relações quantitativas entre o índice D50 da distribuição de tamanho dos sedimentos erodidos, a velocidade da enxurrada, o índice IR da rugosidade superficial do solo criada pelo preparo e o diâmetro médio ponderado (DMP) dos agregados do solo, em solo submetido a diferentes formas de manejo. O estudo foi desenvolvido em campo, na Estação Experimental Agronômica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (EEA/UFRGS), em Eldorado do Sul (RS), aplicando-se chuva simulada sobre um Argissolo Vermelho com textura francoargiloarenosa na camada superficial e declividade média de 0,115 m m-1. Esse solo havia sido submetido ao uso agrícola de diferentes modos (cultivos contínuo e interrompido)...

Compositional analysis for an unbiased measure of soil aggregation

Parent, Leon E.; de Almeida, Cinara X.; Hernandes, Amanda; Egozcue, Juan J.; Gulser, Coskun; Bolinder, Martin A.; Katterer, Thomas; Andren, Olof; Parent, Serge E.; Anctil, Francois; Centurion, Jose F.; Natale, William
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Outros Formato: 123-131
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
684.5382%
Soil aggregation is an index of soil structure measured by mean weight diameter (MWD) or scaling factors often interpreted as fragmentation fractal dimensions (D-f). However, the MWD provides a biased estimate of soil aggregation due to spurious correlations among aggregate-size fractions and scale-dependency. The scale-invariant D-f is based on weak assumptions to allow particle counts and sensitive to the selection of the fractal domain, and may frequently exceed a value of 3, implying that D-f is a biased estimate of aggregation. Aggregation indices based on mass may be computed without bias using compositional analysis techniques. Our objective was to elaborate compositional indices of soil aggregation and to compare them to MWD and D-f using a published dataset describing the effect of 7 cropping systems on aggregation. Six aggregate-size fractions were arranged into a sequence of D-1 balances of building blocks that portray the process of soil aggregation. Isometric log-ratios (ilrs) are scale-invariant and orthogonal log contrasts or balances that possess the Euclidean geometry necessary to compute a distance between any two aggregation states, known as the Aitchison distance (A(x,y)). Close correlations (r>0.98) were observed between MWD...

Efeito de sistemas de manejo na estabilidade de agregados de um Nitossolo Vermelho

Lacerda, Nilda B.; Zero, Vânia M.; Barilli, Juliana; Moraes, Maria H.; Bicudo, Sílvio J.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola (SBEA) Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola (SBEA)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 686-695
POR
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Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do manejo do solo na estabilidade de agregados de um Nitossolo Vermelho distroférrico, localizado na Fazenda Experimental Lageado da FCA/UNESP, em Botucatu - SP, amostraram-se, em outubro de 2001, três sistemas de manejo de solo: (i) mata (MA), (ii) preparo convencional por 10 anos seguido de semeadura direta por 12 anos (PC/SD) e (iii) preparo convencional por 22 anos (PC), em quatro camadas: 0,0-0,10; 0,10-0,20; 0,20-0,30 e 0,30-0,40 m. O delineamento experimental empregado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. As amostragens foram feitas após a cultura do milho (safra 2000-2001). As amostras foram submetidas às análises físicas e químicas, e as médias, comparadas pelo teste de Tukey. O diâmetro médio ponderado dos agregados (DMP), o índice de estabilidade dos agregados (IEA) e a percentagem de agregados em classes de diâmetro médio foram obtidos com os resultados do peneiramento obtidos pelo método por via úmida. O diâmetro médio ponderado e o índice de estabilidade dos agregados foram menores para o preparo convencional do solo. Os três sistemas de manejo apresentaram maior percentagem de agregados com diâmetro entre 7,93 e 2,00 mm. A substituição do preparo convencional pela semeadura direta favoreceu a estabilidade dos agregados do solo. O diâmetro médio ponderado...

Non-labile plant C contributes to long-lasting macroaggregation of an Oxisol

Martins, Márcio R.; Angers, Denis A.; Corá, José E.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 153-158
ENG
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Decomposition of plant material influences soil aggregation dynamics in ways that are still poorly understood, especially for Oxisols, in which oxides are believed to play a dominant role. In an incubation experiment, we investigated (i) the effect of plant material addition from selected monocot and dicot species on soil organic C (SOC), carbohydrate composition, fungal and total microbial biomass, and aggregation of an Oxisol; and (ii) the relationship among these properties and C mineralization patterns. The experiment was carried out at 25 °C for 180 d after addition of 11 plant materials (4 g C kg-1 soil) and a control (no plant material added). Mineralization of C during the incubation was described considering two pools of C (labile and non-labile) using a first-order plus linear fitting. Compared to the control, corn materials showed larger pentose input, greater mineralization rates for the non-labile C pool (k), greater soil pentose content (xylose + arabinose) and larger mean weight diameter of soil water-stable aggregates at 180 d of incubation. These effects were independent of changes in SOC content, suggesting that total C accrual and macroaggregation may be decoupled processes in this Oxisol. Our results support the hypothesis that the non-labile plant C pool contributes to the long-lasting stability of macroaggregates of this Oxisol and that this effect is mediated by plant and soil pentoses. We propose that plant pentose content and the decomposition rate of the slow pool (k) are useful parameters for the prediction of plant effects on aggregation dynamics of Oxisols and the selection of soil conservation practices. © 2012.

Mineralogia da argila e atributos físicos de um argissolo em curvaturas de relevo

Camargo, Livia Arantes
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: viii, 111 f. : il.
POR
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382.0639%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Pós-graduação em Agronomia (Produção Vegetal) - FCAV; Os atributos mineralógicos e físicos possuem dependência espacial e a distribuição espacial destes atributos possui relação com as formas do relevo. O objeto deste trabalho foi avaliar os atributos mineralógicos da fração argila e os atributos físicos de um argissolo em curvaturas do relevo, assim como avaliar a correlação entre esses atributos. Uma malha de dimensão 100 x 100 m foi delimitada em uma área caracterizada pela forma convexa e outra pela fôrma côncava. As malhas possuem espaçamento regular de 10 x 10 m e os pontos de cruzamento deste espaçamento determinaram os pontos de coleta das amostras, num total de 121 pontos amostrais georreferenciados em cada malha. Os atributos físicos foram avaliados nas profundidades 0,0- 0,2 e 0,2-0,4 m e os atributos mineralógicos na profundidade 0,0- 0,2 m. Os atributos físicos analisados foram diâmetro médio ponderado, diâmetro médio geométrico, agregados maiores que 2 mm, agregados entre 2 e 1 mm , agregados menores que 1 mm, microporos, macroporos, volume total de poros, densidade do solo, resistência do solo à penetração e teor de água no solo...

Estimativa do peso do recem-nascido po meio de medidas ultrassonograficas bidimensionais e do volume da coxa fetal; Birth weight precition by two-dimensional ultrasound measurements and fetal thigh volume

João Renato Bennini Junior
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/08/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Introdução: Alguns estudos demonstram que a predição do peso fetal usando a volumetria dos membros fetais é mais precisa do que quando se usam medidas bidimensionais (2D). Até hoje, somente o método multiplanar foi utilizado para a volumetria dos membros fetais. Desta forma, a utilidade do método rotacional (VOCAL®) para este fim nunca foi testada. Objetivos: Avaliar as variabilidades intra e interobservadores e a concordância entre as medidas do volume da coxa fetal realizadas com os métodos multiplanar e VOCAL®. Comparar as acurácias das fórmulas com medidas do volume da coxa fetal com as acurácias das fórmulas com medidas 2D. Comparar as acurácias das fórmulas deste estudo com as acurácias das fórmulas já publicadas. Métodos: 210 pacientes foram avaliadas, formando um grupo para gerar as fórmulas (n = 150) e um grupo para validá-las (n = 60). Os pacientes utilizados para gerar as fórmulas também foram utilizados para avaliar as variabilidades intra e interobservadores e a concordância entre as medidas realizadas pelos métodos multiplanar e VOCAL®. Foram utilizadas análises de regressão polinomial para criar uma equação com medidas 2D, uma com o volume da coxa fetal medido pelo método multiplanar (CoxaM) e uma com o volume da coxa fetal medido pelo método VOCAL® (CoxaV). Utilizaram-se testes t de Student pareados para comparar as acurácias das equações deste estudo com as acurácias das fórmulas já publicadas. Foram utilizadas análises proporcionais de Bland e Altman para avaliar as variabilidades intra e interobservadores e a concordância entre as medidas realizadas pelos métodos multiplanar e VOCAL®. Resultados: A diferença média percentual entre as medidas pelos métodos multiplanar e VOCAL® foi de -0...

Analysis of the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial length in premature infants

Ozdemir,Ozdemir; Tunay,Zuhal Özen; Petriçli,Ikbal Seza; Acar,Damla Ergintürk; Acar,Ugur; Erol,Muhammet Kazim
Fonte: Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia Publicador: Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
408.939%
Purpose: To determine the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial length in premature infants. Methods: Infants with a birth weight of less than 2,500 g or with a gestation period of less than 36 weeks were included in the study. Infants with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) were allocated to Group 1 (n=138), while those without ROP were allocated to Group 2 (n=236). All infants underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including corneal diameter measurements, pachymetry, biometry, and fundoscopy. Between-group comparisons of horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial lengths were performed. Independent sample t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Data was obtained from 374 eyes of 187 infants (102 female, 85 male). The mean gestational age at birth was 30.7 ± 2.7 weeks (range 25-36 weeks), the mean birth weight was 1,514 ± 533.3 g (range 750-1,970 g), and the mean postmenstrual age at examination was 40.0 ± 4.8 weeks. The mean gestational age and the mean birth weight of Group 1 were statistically lower than Group 2 (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial length between the two groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: The presence of ROP in premature infants does not alter the horizontal corneal diameter...

Perennial grasses for recovery of the aggregation capacity of a reconstructed soil in a coal mining area in southern Brazil

Stumpf,Lizete; Pauletto,Eloy Antonio; Fernandes,Flavia Fontana; Suzuki,Luis Eduardo Akiyoshi Sanches; Silva,Tiago Stumpf da; Pinto,Luiz Fernando Spinelli; Lima,Claudia Liane Rodrigues de
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2014 EN
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684.5382%
The construction of a soil after surface coal mining involves heavy machinery traffic during the topographic regeneration of the area, resulting in compaction of the relocated soil layers. This leads to problems with water infiltration and redistribution along the new profile, causing water erosion and consequently hampering the revegetation of the reconstructed soil. The planting of species useful in the process of soil decompaction is a promising strategy for the recovery of the soil structural quality. This study investigated the influence of different perennial grasses on the recovery of reconstructed soil aggregation in a coal mining area of the Companhia Riograndense de Mineração, located in Candiota-RS, which were planted in September/October 2007. The treatments consisted of planting: T1- Cynodon dactylon cv vaquero; T2 - Urochloa brizantha; T3 - Panicum maximun; T4 - Urochloa humidicola; T5 - Hemarthria altissima; T6 - Cynodon dactylon cv tifton 85. Bare reconstructed soil, adjacent to the experimental area, was used as control treatment (T7) and natural soil adjacent to the mining area covered with native vegetation was used as reference area (T8). Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were collected in October/2009 (layers 0.00-0.05 and 0.10-0.15 m) to determine the percentage of macro- and microaggregates...

Structural quality of polyacrylamide-treated cohesive soils in the coastal tablelands of Pernambuco

Melo,Diego Vandeval Maranhão de; Almeida,Brivaldo Gomes de; Souza,Edivan Rodrigues de; Silva,Laércio Santos; Jacomine,Paulo Klinger Tito
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
385.02293%
Water-soluble polymers are characterized as effective flocculating agents due to their molecular features. Their application to soils with horizons with structural problems, e.g, a cohesive character, contributes to improvements in the physical quality and thus to the agricultural suitability of such soils. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the structural quality of soils with cohesive horizons of coastal tablelands in the State of Pernambuco treated with polyacrylamide (PAM) as chemical soil conditioner. To this end, three horizons (one cohesive and two non-cohesive) of a Yellow Argisol (Ultisol) were evaluated and to compare cohesive horizons, the horizon of a Yellow Latosol (Oxisol) was selected. The treatments consisted of aqueous PAM solutions (12.5; 50.0; 100.0 mg kg-1) and distilled water (control). The structural aspects of the horizons were evaluated by the stability (soil mass retained in five diameter classes), aggregate distribution per size class (mean weight diameter- MWD, geometric mean diameter - GMD) and the magnitude of the changes introduced by PAM by measuring the sensitivity index (Si). Aqueous PAM solutions increased aggregate stability in the largest evaluated diameter class of the cohesive and non-cohesive horizons...

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus in microbial activity and aggregation of a Cerrado Oxisol in crop sequence

Vilela,Laíze Aparecida Ferreira; Saggin Júnior,Orivaldo José; Paulino,Helder Barbosa; Siqueira,José Oswaldo; Santos,Vera Lúcia da Silva; Carneiro,Marco Aurélio Carbone
Fonte: Editora da Universidade Federal de Lavras Publicador: Editora da Universidade Federal de Lavras
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2014 EN
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Soil structure has major influence on ecosystem sustainability and plant growth. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are an important functional group of soil microbiota, acting in the process of aggregation, especially in agroecosystems and related to the production and plant diversity. AMF are widely distributed in tropical agroecosystems and are extremely important for development of many agricultural crops. The present study evaluated the effect of inoculation with Glomus macrocarpum in different crop sequences on plant growth, microbial activity and aggregation of a Cerrado Oxisol. The study was conducted in a completely randomized design in a4 x 4 factorial scheme. Treatments consisted of four conditions of elimination and/or introduction of AMF (NS-NI: non-sterilized and non-inoculated; NS-I: non-sterilized and inoculated; S-NI: sterilized and non-inoculated; andS-I: sterilized and inoculated) and four crop sequences (Panicum maximum/Panicum maximum, Brachiaria ruziziensis/ soybean, sorghum/soybean and Stylosanthes spp./soybean). Inoculation favored growth of Stylosanthes spp. by increasing plant growth in up to 91% when inoculated. None of the grasses benefited from G. macrocarpum introduction. We observed that G. macrocarpum inoculation associated with indigenous AMF increased microbial biomass...

Effect of chick weight, geometric mean diameter and sodium level in prestarter diets (1 to 7 days) on broiler perfomance up to 21 days of age

Ribeiro,AML; Krabbe,EL; Penz Júnior,AM; Renz,SV; Gomes,HA
Fonte: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas Publicador: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Seven hundred and twenty Ross 308 chicks were raised in a controlled environment room, distributed in a factorial design with 3 hatching chick weights (37, 40 and 44 g), 3 geometric mean diameter (GMD) (0.561; 0.783 and 0.997 mm) and 4 total sodium levels (Na) (0.12; 0.24; 0.36 and 0.48%) in the pre-starter diet (1 to 7 days). From 8 to 21 days (d) one single basal diet was used for all treatments. The thirty seven-gram chicks had the smallest yolk sack weight at 4d, smallest body weight (BW) and feed intake (FI) at 7d and 21d, but the same feed conversion (FC) than the other groups of hatching weight. Chicks receiving diet with intermediate GMD had the greatest BW and FI at 7d, but at 21d this effect was no longer seen. The diet with finest particle size resulted in birds with the smallest gizzard weight at 7d. The 0.12%Na diet was statistically different from the other Na levels, resulting in chicks at 7d with the worst FC and lowest body weights. At 21d, BW still was the lowest for this group of chicks. Birds with 0.48%Na produced more watery excreta and less dry matter in the carcass at 7d. Water consumption (C H2O) was influenced linearly by chick weight up to 0.36%Na level. In the 0.48%Na level, 40 and 44 g chicks had similar C H2O...

Nuclear diameter in parathyroid adenomas.

Lloyd, H M; Jacobi, J M; Cooke, R A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1979 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Nuclear diameter was measured in 55 parathyroid chief-cell adenomas to determine its value in histological diagnosis and to assess its relationship to other features of primary hyperparathyroidism. Mean nuclear diameter for the whole group of adenomas was significantly greater than that for the accompanying normal glands. Mean nuclear diameter in individual adenomas was significantly greater than that in the accompanying normal gland in 27 out of 34 cases. Nuclear diameter was correlated with tumour weight and with plasma calcium but was not correlated with duration of history. It was significantly greater in the group of patients with overt bone disease than in those with kidney stones and in those with neither kidney stones nor overt bone disease. Assessment of nuclear diameter is of value in histological diagnosis of parathyroid adenoma. The rate of growth of the adenoma may be a factor determining nuclear diameter.

Accelerated Postnatal Growth Increases Lipogenic Gene Expression and Adipocyte Size in Low–Birth Weight Mice

Jimenez-Chillaron, Jose; Chow, Alice; DeCoste, Jennifer; Vokes, Martha; Liu, Manway; Kasif, Simon; Zavacki, Ann-Marie; Leshan, Rebecca L.; Myers, Martin G.; Isganaitis, Elvira; Woo, Melissa; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth
Fonte: American Diabetes Association Publicador: American Diabetes Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
385.69727%
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the hormonal milieu and adipose gene expression in response to catch-up growth (CUG), a growth pattern associated with obesity and diabetes risk, in a mouse model of low birth weight (LBW). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: ICR mice were food restricted by 50% from gestational days 12.5–18.5, reducing offspring birth weight by 25%. During the suckling period, dams were either fed ad libitum, permitting CUG in offspring, or food restricted, preventing CUG. Offspring were killed at age 3 weeks, and gonadal fat was removed for RNA extraction, array analysis, RT-PCR, and evaluation of cell size and number. Serum insulin, thyroxine (T4), corticosterone, and adipokines were measured. RESULTS: At age 3 weeks, LBW mice with CUG (designated U-C) had body weight comparable with controls (designated C-C); weight was reduced by 49% in LBW mice without CUG (designated U-U). Adiposity was altered by postnatal nutrition, with gonadal fat increased by 50% in U-C and decreased by 58% in U-U mice (P less than 0.05 vs. C-C mice). Adipose expression of the lipogenic genes Fasn, AccI, Lpin1, and Srebf1 was significantly increased in U-C compared with both C-C and U-U mice (P less than 0.05). Mitochondrial DNA copy number was reduced by greater than 50% in U-C versus U-U mice (P = 0.014). Although cell numbers did not differ...

Efeito de plantas de cobertura sobre os atributos f??sicos de um solo constru??do na ??rea de minera????o de carv??o de Candiota-RS ap??s tr??s anos; Effect of cover crops on the physical attributes of constructed soil in coal mining area in Candiota-RS, Brazil, after three years

GON??ALVES, Fernanda Coelho
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Agronomia; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Solos; UFPel; BR Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Agronomia; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Solos; UFPel; BR
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
388.35297%
The mineral coal is important to the expansion of the national electrical system. Candiota s mine is the biggest mine in Brazil, with 38% of all national coal. This activity and the traffic of weight machines, cause negative alterations in the structure. Attributes such as bulk density, porosity, mean weight diameter of aggregates and mechanical resistance penetration show the consequences of this activity. The revegetation has been used as a strategy to recover these degraded soils. Thus, with, the reestablishment of the cycle of the organic substance exerts big influence on the physical quality of the soil. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of different cover crops on the physical attributes of constructed soil in coal mining area in Candiota-RS, after 3 years of experiment conduction. Aggregates stability in different size classes, mean weight diameter (MWD), organic carbon, soil bulk density, total porosity, macro/microporosity and mechanical resistence to penetration were analized. The experiment, installed in nov/dez of 2003, is comprised of four randomized blocks with four treatments: T1 - Hemarthria altissima (Poir.) Stapf & C. E. Hubbard, T2 - Cynodon dactilon (L.) Pers., T3 Paspalum notatum Fl??gg??...

Influência do sistema integrado de produção agropecuária no solo e na produtividade de soja e braquiária; Influence of the integrated crop-livestock system on soil and soybean and brachiaria yield

Bonetti, João de Andrade; Paulino, Helder Barbosa; Souza, Edicarlos Damacena de; Carneiro, Marco Aurélio Carbone; Silva, Geanderson Nascimento da
Fonte: Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos/UFG Publicador: Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos/UFG
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/01/2015 PT_BR
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384.5382%
The presence of animals in farming areas can affect soil physical structures depending on grazing intensity. This study aimed to evaluate soil physical attributes, as well as soybean and brachiaria yield, under no-tillage, in an integrated crop-livestock system. Treatments were arranged in a complete randomized blocks design, with three replications, and consisted of different grazing heights (0.25 m, 0.35 m and 0.45 m) and a no-grazing area. The shoot and root dry biomass of soybean and brachiaria and soybean yield were evaluated. Soil samples were collected from 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth layers and the following soil physical attributes were determined: bulk density, total porosity, macroporosity, microporosity, penetration resistance and mean weight diameter of aggregates. Grazing intensities did not affect soil bulk density in any of the analyzed layers. There was a reduction in total porosity after the second grazing cycle, in the 0-5 cm layer. The mean weight diameter of aggregates was lower in grazed areas, in the 0-5 cm and 10-20 cm layers, and an increase in the penetration mechanical resistance was observed in all layers, especially for the 0.25 m height grazing treatment. The total dry biomass (soybean + brachiaria) and shoot dry biomass of brachiaria were lower in grazed areas. However...

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus in microbial activity and aggregation of a cerrado oxisol in crop sequence; Fungo micorrízico arbuscular na atividade microbiana e agregação de um Latossolo Vermelho de Cerrado submetido às sucessões de culturas

Vilela, Laíze Aparecida Ferreira; Saggin Junior, Orivaldo José; Paulino, Helder Barbosa; Siqueira, José Oswaldo; Santos, Vera Lúcia da Silva; Carneiro, Marco Aurélio Carbone
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Lavras Publicador: Universidade Federal de Lavras
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN_US
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590.60203%
Soil structure has major influence on ecosystem sustainability and plant growth. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are an important functional group of soil microbiota, acting in the process of aggregation, especially in agroecosystems and related to the production and plant diversity. AMF are widely distributed in tropical agroecosystems and are extremely important for development of many agricultural crops. The present study evaluated the effect of inoculation with Glomus macrocarpum in different crop sequences on plant growth, microbial activity and aggregation of a Cerrado Oxisol. The study was conducted in a completely randomized design in a4 x 4 factorial scheme. Treatments consisted of four conditions of elimination and/or introduction of AMF (NS-NI: non-sterilized and non-inoculated; NS-I: non-sterilized and inoculated; S-NI: sterilized and non-inoculated; andS-I: sterilized and inoculated) and four crop sequences (Panicum maximum/Panicum maximum, Brachiaria ruziziensis/ soybean, sorghum/soybean and Stylosanthes spp./soybean). Inoculation favored growth of Stylosanthes spp. by increasing plant growth in up to 91% when inoculated. None of the grasses benefited from G. macrocarpum introduction. We observed that G. macrocarpum inoculation associated with indigenous AMF increased microbial biomass...

Soil quality indicators in a Rhodic Paleudult under long term tillage systems

Souza, Elisângela Dutra de; Costa, Sérgio Ely Valadão Gigante de Andrade; Anghinoni, Ibanor; Carneiro, Marco Aurélio Carbone; Martins, Amanda Posselt; Bayer, Cimélio
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Lavras Publicador: Universidade Federal de Lavras
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/02/2014 EN
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384.5382%
Many investigations have focused in defining soil quality indicator components. However, for understanding better the impact of soil tillage systems on soil quality, a broader approach is demanded, with simultaneous soil attributes evaluations, by using multivariate analysis. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the long-term effect of two tillage systems on the soil C and N stocks in comparison to those of native grassland and to identify the most suitable soil attributes for characterizing soil quality. The experiment was established in 1988 at the Agronomic Experimental Station of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. Treatments consisted of two tillage systems (no-tillage and conventional tillage) and a reference area under native grassland. Soil analysis was performed up to 20 cm. Soil organic matter, C and N, physical fractionation was performed and carbon management index calculated. Microbial biomass C and N was determined as well as soil aggregate stability. From soil aggregation, soil average diameters and mass were grouped, and classes determined to calculate mean weight diameter. After 18 years, conventionally tilled soil showed lower total C and N stocks in comparison to no-tilled soil...

Tillage and cropping intensification effects on soil aggregation: Temporal dynamics and controlling factors under semiarid conditions

Álvaro-Fuentes, Jorge; Arrúe Ugarte, José Luis; Gracia Ballarín, Ricardo; López Sánchez, María Victoria
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 310419 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
687.99195%
The definitive version is available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00167061; During decades, in semiarid agroecosystems of the Ebro valley, intensive soil tillage and low crop residue input has led to a loss of soil structure. Conservation tillage and cropping intensification can improve soil structure in these areas. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of three different tillage systems (conventional tillage, CT; reduced tillage, RT; and no-tillage, NT) under two cropping systems (barley–fallow rotation, CF; and continuous barley, CC) on soil aggregation dynamics during two consecutive growing seasons (2003–2004 and 2004–2005). At the same time, the role that different soil and climatic factors play on soil aggregation in these semiarid areas was studied. Soil samples were collected at the soil surface (0–5 cm depth) from a long-term tillage experiment with a loamy soil (Xerollic Calciorthid). Two aggregation indexes were studied: dry aggregate size distribution and water aggregate stability from both air-dried and field-moist macroaggregates. A decrease in tillage intensity resulted in a higher mean size of dry aggregates and a greater water aggregate stability in both cropping systems particularly under NT. During the whole experiment...