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Activation of the Small GTPase Rac Is Sufficient to Disrupt Cadherin-dependent Cell-Cell Adhesion in Normal Human Keratinocytes

Braga, Vania M.M.; Betson, Martha; Li, Xiaodong; Lamarche-Vane, Nathalie
Fonte: The American Society for Cell Biology Publicador: The American Society for Cell Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2000 EN
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To achieve strong adhesion to their neighbors and sustain stress and tension, epithelial cells develop many different specialized adhesive structures. Breakdown of these structures occurs during tumor progression, with the development of a fibroblastic morphology characteristic of metastatic cells. During Ras transformation, Rac-signaling pathways participate in the disruption of cadherin-dependent adhesion. We show that sustained Rac activation per se is sufficient to disassemble cadherin-mediated contacts in keratinocytes, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Cadherin receptors are removed from junctions before integrin receptors, suggesting that pathways activated by Rac can specifically interfere with cadherin function. We mapped an important region for disruption of junctions to the putative second effector domain of the Rac protein. Interestingly, although this region overlaps the domain necessary to induce lamellipodia, we demonstrate that the disassembly of cadherin complexes is a new Rac activity, distinct from Rac-dependent lamellipodia formation. Because Rac activity is also necessary for migration, Rac is a good candidate to coordinately regulate cell-cell and cell-substratum adhesion during tumorigenesis.

Activation of RAC-protein kinase by heat shock and hyperosmolarity stress through a pathway independent of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

Konishi, H; Matsuzaki, H; Tanaka, M; Ono, Y; Tokunaga, C; Kuroda, S; Kikkawa, U
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/07/1996 EN
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493.14527%
RAC protein kinase (RAC-PK), a serine/threonine protein kinase containing a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, was activated by cellular stress such as heat shock and hyperosmolarity. Wortmannin, which is known as a potent inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and normally inhibits growth factor-induced activation of RAC-PK, did not suppress heat-shock induced activation of RAC-PK, indicating that this stress-induced activation of the kinase is not mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. The PH domain was indispensable for stress-induced activation of RAC PK. In heat-treated cells, PKC delta, a member of the protein kinase C family, was found to associate with the PH domain of RAC-PK. This PKC subspecies was phosphorylated in vitro by RAC-PK. The results suggest that RAC-PK may play a role in the cellular response to stress through its PH domain.

Activation and phosphorylation of a pleckstrin homology domain containing protein kinase (RAC-PK/PKB) promoted by serum and protein phosphatase inhibitors.

Andjelković, M; Jakubowicz, T; Cron, P; Ming, X F; Han, J W; Hemmings, B A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/06/1996 EN
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395.8154%
Treatment of quiescent Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts with serum, or with the phosphatase inhibitors okadaic acid and vanadate, induced a 2- to 11-fold activation of the serine/ threonine RAC protein kinase (RAC-PK). Kinase activation was accompanied by decreased mobility of RAC-PK on SDS/PAGE such that three electrophoretic species (a to c) of the kinase were detected by immunoblot analysis, indicative of differentially phosphorylated forms. Addition of vanadate to arrested cells increased the RAC-PK phosphorylation level 3-to 4-fold. Unstimulated RAC-PK was phosphorylated predominantly on serine, whereas the activated kinase was phosphorylated on both serine and threonine residues. Treatment of RAC-PK in vitro with protein phosphatase 2A led to kinase inactivation and an increase in electrophoretic mobility. Deletion of the N-terminal region containing the pleckstrin homology domain did not affect RAC-PK activation by okadaic acid, but it reduced vanadate-stimulated activity and also blocked the serum-induced activation. Deletion of the serine/threonine rich C-terminal region impaired both RAC-PKalpha basal and vanadate-stimulated activity. Studies using a kinase-deficient mutant indicated that autophosphorylation is not involved in RAC-PKalpha activation. Stimulation of RAC-PK activity and electrophoretic mobility changes induced by serum were sensitive to wortmannin. Taken together the results suggest that RAC-PK is a component of a signaling pathway regulated by phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase...

Molecular cloning and identification of a serine/threonine protein kinase of the second-messenger subfamily.

Jones, P F; Jakubowicz, T; Pitossi, F J; Maurer, F; Hemmings, B A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/05/1991 EN
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A partial cDNA was isolated that encoded a protein kinase, termed rac (related to the A and C kinases). This cDNA was subsequently used to screen libraries derived from the human cell lines MCF-7 and WI38 and led to the isolation of full-length cDNA clones. DNA sequence analysis identified an open reading frame of 1440 base pairs encoding a protein of 480 amino acids (Mr, 55,716). This result was supported by the synthesis of a Mr 58,000 protein in an in vitro translation system that used RNA transcribed from cloned cDNAs with SP6 RNA polymerase. The predicted protein contains consensus sequences characteristic of a protein kinase catalytic domain and shows 73% and 68% similarity to protein kinase C and the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, respectively. Northern (RNA) analysis revealed a single mRNA transcript of 3.2 kilobases that varied up to 300-fold between different cell lines. Specific antisera directed towards the carboxyl terminal of the rac protein kinase were prepared and used to identify that phosphorylated several substrates in immunoprecipitates prepared with the rac-specific antisera.

Cytoskeletal Reorganization by G Protein-Coupled Receptors Is Dependent on Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase γ, a Rac Guanosine Exchange Factor, and Rac

Ma, Alice D.; Metjian, Ara; Bagrodia, Shubha; Taylor, Stephen; Abrams, Charles S.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1998 EN
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293.9916%
Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is an early cellular response to a variety of extracellular signals. Dissection of pathways leading to actin rearrangement has focused largely on those initiated by growth factor receptors or integrins, although stimulation of G protein-coupled receptors also leads to cytoskeletal changes. In transfected Cos-7SH cells, activation of the chemoattractant formyl peptide receptor induces cortical actin polymerization and a decrease in the number of central actin bundles. In this report, we show that cytoskeletal reorganization can be transduced by G protein βγ heterodimers (Gβγ), phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ (PI3-Kγ), a guanosine exchange factor (GEF) for Rac, and Rac. Expression of inactive variants of either PI3-Kγ, the Rac GEF Vav, or Rac blocked the actin rearrangement. Neither wortmannin nor LY294002, pharmacologic inhibitors of PI3-K, could inhibit the actin rearrangement induced by a constitutively active Rac. The inhibition of cytoskeletal reorganization by the dominant negative Vav variants could be rescued by coexpression of a constitutively active form of Rac. In contrast, a Vav variant with its pleckstrin homology (PH) domain missing constitutively induced JNK activation and led to cytoskeletal reorganization...

Characterization of sgk, a novel member of the serine/threonine protein kinase gene family which is transcriptionally induced by glucocorticoids and serum.

Webster, M K; Goya, L; Ge, Y; Maiyar, A C; Firestone, G L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1993 EN
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362.68645%
A novel member of the serine/threonine protein kinase gene family, designated sgk, for serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase, was identified in a differential screen for glucocorticoid-inducible transcripts expressed in the Con8.hd6 rat mammary tumor cell line. sgk encodes a protein of 49 kDa which has significant sequence homology (45 to 55% identity) throughout its catalytic domain with rac protein kinase, the protein kinase C family, ribosomal protein S6 kinase, and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. sgk mRNA is expressed in most adult rat tissues, with the highest levels in the thymus, ovary, and lung, as well as in several rodent and human cell lines. sgk mRNA was stimulated by glucocorticoids and by serum within 30 min, and both inductions were independent of de novo protein synthesis. The transcriptional regulation by glucocorticoids is a primary response, since the promoter of sgk contains a glucocorticoid response element consensus sequence 1.0 kb upstream of the start of transcription which is able to stimulate chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene activity in a dexamethasone-dependent manner. Antibodies that specifically recognize sgk-encoded protein on an immunoblot were generated. This protein was shown to increase in abundance with glucocorticoid treatment in a manner which paralleled the mRNA accumulation. This is the first report of a presumed serine/threonine protein kinase that is highly regulated at the transcriptional level by glucocorticoid hormones and suggests a novel interplay between glucocorticoid receptor signalling and a protein kinase of the second messenger family.

Molecular cloning of a second form of rac protein kinase.

Jones, P F; Jakubowicz, T; Hemmings, B A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1991 EN
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492.9919%
A novel serine/threonine protein kinase (termed rac-PK) has recently been identified and cloned from cDNA libraries derived from the human cell lines MCF-7 and WI38. A second form of this protein kinase, termed rac protein kinase beta, has been identified from cDNAs derived from the same cell lines. These two closely related forms show 90% homology, although the beta form with a predicted Mr 60,200 has a carboxyl terminal extension of 40 amino acids in comparison to the alpha form. This extension has a high serine content with 11 serine residues in the last 30 amino acids. The beta form of the protein has been shown by both in vitro translation and bacterial expression to be approximately 5000 Da larger than the alpha form. rac protein kinase beta is encoded by a 3.4-kb transcript and the alpha form is encoded by a 3.2-kb mRNA. Using gene-specific probes both transcripts were detected in all cell types analyzed, although levels of expression were different for the two forms. The catalytic domain of rac protein kinase beta shows a high degree of homology to both the protein kinase C and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase families, and hence rac protein kinases appear to represent a new subfamily of the second messenger serine/threonine protein kinases.

Inhibitors of Protein Geranylgeranyltransferase I and Rab Geranylgeranyltransferase Identified from a Library of Allenoate-derived Compounds*S⃞

Watanabe, Masaru; Fiji, Hannah D. G.; Guo, Lea; Chan, Lai; Kinderman, Sape S.; Slamon, Dennis J.; Kwon, Ohyun; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/04/2008 EN
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361.09723%
Protein geranylgeranylation is critical for the function of a number of proteins such as RhoA, Rac, and Rab. Protein geranylgeranyltransferase I (GGTase-I) and Rab geranylgeranyltransferase (RabGGTase) catalyze these modifications. In this work, we first describe the identification and characterization of small molecule inhibitors of GGTase-I (GGTI) with two novel scaffolds from a library consisting of allenoate-derived compounds. These compounds exhibit specific inhibition of GGTase-I and act by competing with a substrate protein. Derivatization of a carboxylic acid emanating from the core ring of one of the GGTI compounds dramatically improves their cellular activity. The improved GGTI compounds inhibit proliferation of a variety of human cancer cell lines and cause G1 cell cycle arrest and induction of p21CIP1/WAF1. We also report the identification of novel small molecule inhibitors of RabGGTase. These compounds were identified first by screening our GGTI compounds for those that also exhibited RabGGTase inhibition. This led to the discovery of a common structural feature for RabGGTase inhibitors: the presence of a characteristic six-atom aliphatic tail attached to the penta-substituted pyrrolidine core. Further screening led to the identification of compounds with preferential inhibition of RabGGTase. These compounds inhibit RabGGTase activity by competing with the substrate protein. These novel compounds may provide valuable reagents to study protein geranylgeranylation.

A genetically-encoded photoactivatable Rac controls the motility of living cells

Wu, Yi I.; Frey, Daniel; Lungu, Oana I.; Jaehrig, Angelika; Schlichting, Ilme; Kuhlman, Brian; Hahn, Klaus M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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294.69918%
The precise spatio-temporal dynamics of protein activity are often critical in determining cell behaviour, yet for most proteins they remain poorly understood; it remains difficult to manipulate protein activity at precise times and places within living cells. Protein activity has been controlled by light, through protein derivatization with photocleavable moieties1 or using photoreactive small molecule ligands2. However, this requires use of toxic UV wavelengths, activation is irreversible, and/or cell loading is accomplished via disruption of the cell membrane (i.e. through microinjection). We have developed a new approach to produce genetically-encoded photo-activatable derivatives of Rac1, a key GTPase regulating actin cytoskeletal dynamics3,4. Rac1 mutants were fused to the photoreactive LOV (light oxygen voltage) domain from phototropin5,6, sterically blocking Rac1 interactions until irradiation unwound a helix linking LOV to Rac1. Photoactivatable Rac1 (PA-Rac1) could be reversibly and repeatedly activated using 458 or 473 nm light to generate precisely localized cell protrusions and ruffling. Localized Rac activation or inactivation was sufficient to produce cell motility and control the direction of cell movement. Myosin was involved in Rac control of directionality but not in Rac-induced protrusion...

Structural Analysis of the Ribosome-associated Complex (RAC) Reveals an Unusual Hsp70/Hsp40 Interaction*

Fiaux, Jocelyne; Horst, Janina; Scior, Annika; Preissler, Steffen; Koplin, Ansgar; Bukau, Bernd; Deuerling, Elke
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Yeast Zuotin and Ssz are members of the conserved Hsp40 and Hsp70 chaperone families, respectively, but compared with canonical homologs, they atypically form a stable heterodimer termed ribosome-associated complex (RAC). RAC acts as co-chaperone for another Hsp70 to assist de novo protein folding. In this study, we identified the molecular basis for the unusual Hsp70/Hsp40 pairing using amide hydrogen exchange (HX) coupled with mass spectrometry and mutational analysis. Association of Ssz with Zuotin strongly decreased the conformational dynamics mainly in the C-terminal domain of Ssz, whereas Zuotin acquired strong conformational stabilization in its N-terminal segment. Deletion of the highly flexible N terminus of Zuotin abolished stable association with Ssz in vitro and caused a phenotype resembling the loss of Ssz function in vivo. Thus, the C-terminal domain of Ssz, the N-terminal extension of Zuotin, and their mutual stabilization are the major structural determinants for RAC assembly. We furthermore found dynamic changes in the J-domain of Zuotin upon complex formation that might be crucial for RAC co-chaperone function. Taken together, we present a novel mechanism for converting Zuotin and Ssz chaperones into a functionally active dimer.

Scaffold Proteins IRSp53 and Spinophilin Regulate Localized Rac Activation by T-lymphocyte Invasion and Metastasis Protein 1 (TIAM1)*

Rajagopal, Soumitra; Ji, Yuxin; Xu, Kun; Li, Yuhuan; Wicks, Kathleen; Liu, Jiewei; Wong, Ka-Wing; Herman, Ira M.; Isberg, Ralph R.; Buchsbaum, Rachel J.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
293.7243%
The Rac exchange factor Tiam1 is involved in diverse cell functions and signaling pathways through multiple protein interactions, raising the question of how signaling and functional specificity are achieved. We have shown that Tiam1 interactions with different scaffold proteins activate different Rac-dependent pathways by recruiting specific Rac effector proteins, and reasoned that there must be regulatory mechanisms governing each interaction. Fibroblasts express at least two Tiam1-interacting proteins, insulin receptor substrate protein 53 kDa (IRSp53) and spinophilin. We used fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) to measure localized Rac activation associated with IRSp53 and spinophilin complexes in individual fibroblasts to test this hypothesis. Pervanadate or platelet-derived growth factor induced localized Rac activation dependent on Tiam1 and IRSp53. Forskolin or epinephrine induced localized Rac activation dependent on Tiam1 and spinophilin. In spinophilin-deficient cells, Tiam1 co-localized with IRSp53 in response to pervanadate or platelet-derived growth factor. In IRSp53-deficient cells, Tiam1 co-localized with spinophilin in response to forskolin or epinephrine. Total cellular levels of activated Rac were affected only in cells with exogenous Tiam1...

The DOCK Protein Sponge Binds to ELMO and Functions in Drosophila Embryonic CNS Development

Biersmith, Bridget; Liu, Ze; Bauman, Kenneth; Geisbrecht, Erika R.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/01/2011 EN
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379.60406%
Cell morphogenesis, which requires rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton, is essential to coordinate the development of tissues such as the musculature and nervous system during normal embryonic development. One class of signaling proteins that regulate actin cytoskeletal rearrangement is the evolutionarily conserved CDM (C. elegans Ced-5, human DOCK180, Drosophila Myoblast city, or Mbc) family of proteins, which function as unconventional guanine nucleotide exchange factors for the small GTPase Rac. This CDM-Rac protein complex is sufficient for Rac activation, but is enhanced upon the association of CDM proteins with the ELMO/Ced-12 family of proteins. We identified and characterized the role of Drosophila Sponge (Spg), the vertebrate DOCK3/DOCK4 counterpart as an ELMO-interacting protein. Our analysis shows Spg mRNA and protein is expressed in the visceral musculature and developing nervous system, suggesting a role for Spg in later embryogenesis. As maternal null mutants of spg die early in development...

The Interferon-γ-induced GTPase, mGBP-2, Inhibits Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α) Induction of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) by Inhibiting NF-κB and Rac Protein*

Balasubramanian, Sujata; Fan, Meiyun; Messmer-Blust, Angela F.; Yang, Chuan H.; Trendel, Jill A.; Jeyaratnam, Jonathan A.; Pfeffer, Lawrence M.; Vestal, Deborah J.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
378.0079%
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is important in numerous normal and pathological processes, including the angiogenic switch during tumor development and tumor metastasis. Whereas TNF-α and other cytokines up-regulate MMP-9 expression, interferons (IFNs) inhibit MMP-9 expression. We found that IFN-γ treatment or forced expression of the IFN-induced GTPase, mGBP-2, inhibit TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, by inhibiting MMP-9 transcription. The NF-κB transcription factor is required for full induction of MMP-9 by TNF-α. Both IFN-γ and mGBP-2 inhibit the transcription of a NF-κB-dependent reporter construct, suggesting that mGBP-2 inhibits MMP-9 induction via inhibition of NF-κB-mediated transcription. Interestingly, mGBP-2 does not inhibit TNF-α-induced degradation of IκBα or p65/RelA translocation into the nucleus. However, mGBP-2 inhibits p65 binding to a κB oligonucleotide probe in gel shift assays and to the MMP-9 promoter in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. In addition, TNF-α activation of NF-κB in NIH 3T3 cells is dependent on Rac activation, as evidenced by the inhibition of TNF-α induction of NF-κB-mediated transcription by a dominant inhibitory form of Rac1. A role for Rac in the inhibitory action of mGBP-2 on NF-κB is further shown by the findings that mGBP-2 inhibits TNF-α activation of endogenous Rac and constitutively activate Rac can restore NF-κB transcription in the presence of mGBP-2. This is a novel mechanism by which IFNs can inhibit the cytokine induction of MMP-9 expression.

Multiple Factors Confer Specific Cdc42 and Rac Protein Activation by Dedicator of Cytokinesis (DOCK) Nucleotide Exchange Factors*

Kulkarni, Kiran; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Ziguo; Barford, David
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
479.8959%
DOCK (dedicator of cytokinesis) guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) activate the Rho-family GTPases Rac and Cdc42 to control cell migration, morphogenesis, and phagocytosis. The DOCK A and B subfamilies activate Rac, whereas the DOCK D subfamily activates Cdc42. Nucleotide exchange is catalyzed by a conserved DHR2 domain (DOCKDHR2). Although the molecular basis for DOCKDHR2-mediated GTPase activation has been elucidated through structures of a DOCK9DHR2-Cdc42 complex, the factors determining recognition of specific GTPases are unknown. To understand the molecular basis for DOCK-GTPase specificity, we have determined the crystal structure of DOCK2DHR2 in complex with Rac1. DOCK2DHR2 and DOCK9DHR2 exhibit similar tertiary structures and homodimer interfaces and share a conserved GTPase-activating mechanism. Multiple structural differences between DOCK2DHR2 and DOCK9DHR2 account for their selectivity toward Rac1 and Cdc42. Key determinants of selectivity of Cdc42 and Rac for their cognate DOCKDHR2 are a Phe or Trp residue within β3 (residue 56) and the ability of DOCK proteins to exploit differences in the GEF-induced conformational changes of switch 1 dependent on a divergent residue at position 27. DOCK proteins, therefore, differ from DH-PH GEFs that select their cognate GTPases through recognition of structural differences within the β2/β3 strands.

PtdIns3P and Rac direct the assembly of the NADPH oxidase on a novel, pre-phagosomal compartment during FcR-mediated phagocytosis in primary mouse neutrophils

Anderson, Karen E.; Chessa, Tamara A. M.; Davidson, Keith; Henderson, Robert B.; Walker, Simon; Tolmachova, Tanya; Grys, Katarzyna; Rausch, Oliver; Seabra, Miguel C.; Tybulewicz, Victor L. J.; Stephens, Len R.; Hawkins, Phillip T.
Fonte: American Society of Hematology Publicador: American Society of Hematology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/12/2010 EN
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370.58203%
The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase is an important mechanism by which neutrophils kill pathogens. The oxidase is composed of a membrane-bound cytochrome and 4 soluble proteins (p67phox, p40phox, p47phox, and GTP-Rac). These components form an active complex at the correct time and subcellular location through a series of incompletely understood mutual interactions, regulated, in part, by GTP/GDP exchange on Rac, protein phosphorylation, and binding to lipid messengers. We have used a variety of assays to follow the spatiotemporal assembly of the oxidase in genetically engineered primary mouse neutrophils, during phagocytosis of both serum- and immunoglobulin G-opsonized targets. The oxidase assembles directly on serum-Staphylococcus aureus–containing phagosomes within seconds of phagosome formation; this process is only partially dependent (∼ 30%) on PtdIns3P binding to p40phox, but totally dependent on Rac1/2 binding to p67phox. In contrast, in response to immunoglobulin G-targets, the oxidase first assembles on a tubulovesicular compartment that develops at sites of granule fusion to the base of the emerging phagosome; oxidase assembly and activation is highly dependent on both PtdIns3P-p40phox and Rac2-p67phox interactions and delivery to the phagosome is regulated by Rab27a. These results define a novel pathway for oxidase assembly downstream of FcR-activation.

ADP Ribosylation Factor 6 (Arf6) Acts through FilGAP Protein to Down-regulate Rac Protein and Regulates Plasma Membrane Blebbing*

Kawaguchi, Kaori; Saito, Koji; Asami, Hisayo; Ohta, Yasutaka
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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370.835%
Background: FilGAP is a Rac GTPase-activating protein, but how it is regulated remains unclear.

Knocked out by Rho Rac T-cell biology

Bustelo, X.R.
Fonte: Murcia : F. Hernández Publicador: Murcia : F. Hernández
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
ENG
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370.58203%
The Rho/Rac family is a group of Ras-related proteins with demonstrated roles in the regulation of proliferation and cytoskeletal structures in a number of cell lineages. Despite this, the actual role of these proteins in T-cells could not be addressed in vivo due to the lack of adequate animal models. Recently, the use of knockout and transgenic animals for Rac1, Rac2, and RhoA has provided a genetic proof of the importance of Rho/Rac protein in different aspects of T-cell signaling. These animals have also allowed us to get better views about the influence of these GTPases proteins on the maturation decisions of immature lymphocytes and on the signaling strategies these GTPases utilize to favor the generation of coherent and robust immune responses.

Characterization of the Rac-GAP (Rac-GTPase-activating protein) activity of beta2-chimaerin, a 'non-protein kinase C' phorbol ester receptor.

Caloca, Maria Jose; Wang, HongBin; Kazanietz, Marcelo G
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/10/2003 EN
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295.05873%
The regulation and function of beta2-chimaerin, a novel receptor for the phorbol ester tumour promoters and the second messenger DAG (diacylglycerol), is largely unknown. As with PKC (protein kinase C) isoenzymes, phorbol esters bind to beta2-chimaerin with high affinity and promote its subcellular distribution. beta2-Chimaerin has GAP (GTPase-activating protein) activity for the small GTP-binding protein Rac1, but for not Cdc42 or RhoA. We show that acidic phospholipids enhanced its catalytic activity markedly in vitro, but the phorbol ester PMA had no effect. beta2-Chimaerin and other chimaerin isoforms decreased cellular levels of Rac-GTP markedly in COS-1 cells and impaired GTP loading on to Rac upon EGF (epidermal growth factor) receptor stimulation. Deletional and mutagenesis analysis determined that the beta2-chimaerin GAP domain is essential for this effect. Interestingly, PMA has a dual effect on Rac-GTP levels in COS-1 cells. PMA increased Rac-GTP levels in the absence of a PKC inhibitor, whereas under conditions in which PKC activity is inhibited, PMA markedly decreased Rac-GTP levels and potentiated the effect of beta2-chimaerin. Chimaerin isoforms co-localize at the plasma membrane with active Rac, and these results were substantiated by co-immunoprecipitation assays. In summary...

Interaction of Nck-associated protein 1 with activated GTP-binding protein Rac.

Kitamura, Y; Kitamura, T; Sakaue, H; Maeda, T; Ueno, H; Nishio, S; Ohno, S; Osada, S i; Sakaue, M; Ogawa, W; Kasuga, M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/03/1997 EN
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295.35818%
Bacterially expressed glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins containing Rac1 were used to identify binding proteins of this Rho family GTPase present in a bovine brain extract. Five proteins of 85, 110, 125, 140 and 170 kDa were detected, all of which were associated exclusively with guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate-bound Rac1, not with GDP-bound Rac1. The 85 and 110 kDa proteins were identified as the regulatory and catalytic subunits respectively of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Several lines of evidence suggested that the 125 kDa protein is identical with Nck-associated protein 1 (Nap1). The mobilities of the 125 kDa protein and Nap1 on SDS/PAGE were indistinguishable, and the 125 kDa protein was depleted from brain extract by preincubation with the Src homology 3 domain of Nck to which Nap1 binds. Furthermore, antibodies to Nap1 reacted with the 125 kDa protein. Nap1 was co-immunoprecipitated with a constitutively active form of Rac expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The observation that complex formation between activated Rac and PAK, but not that between Rac and Nap1, could be reproduced in vitro with recombinant proteins indicates that the interaction of Nap1 with Rac is indirect. The 140 kDa Rac-binding protein is a potential candidate for a link that connects Nap1 to Rac. The multimolecular complex comprising Rac...

Estudio funcional y estructural de las quimerinas, una familia de receptores de DAG y esteres de Forbol con actividad de Rac-GAP; : Structural and functional study of chimaerins, a family of DAG and phorbol esters receptors with rac-GAP activity

Coluccio Leskow, Federico
Fonte: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires Publicador: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; tesis doctoral; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2005 SPA
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380.17375%
Las quimerinas son una familia de GAPs (GTPase Activating Proteins) especificas para la familia de proteínas de Rac, reguladas por el segundo mensajero diacilglicerol (DAG) y los esteres de forbol. En mamíferos los genes CHN1 (o α) y CHN2 (o β) codifican para las cuatro isoformas conocidas, α1 y β1 presentan un dominio C1 y un dominio de GAP, mientras que α2 y β2 poseen un dominio adicional SH2. En el primer capitulo de este trabajo se muestra que el gen beta codifica para al menos 3 nuevas isoformas. La resolución de la estructura cristalográfica de β2-chimaerin. Se demuestra que es necesaria la unión del ligando al dominio C1 y la interacción con fosfolípidos de membrana para la activación del GAP. En el tercer capitulo se muestra que el dominio SH2 de β2-chimaerin es capaz de unir proteínas fosforiladas en tirosina y se identifican tres de estas proteínas. En el capitulo cuarto se reporta el clonado y caracterización de z-chimaerin, el producto del único gen de quimerinas presente en el pez cebra. Esta proteína posee características similares a las de mamíferos y se expresa de forma materna y zigotica a lo largo del desarrollo embrionario. En el ultimo capitulo se estudia la función de z-chimaerin en el desarrollo embrionario. Se determino que su actividad de GAP es necesaria en la capa sincitial del saco vitelino para regular el movimiento de epíboli.; Chimaerins are a family of GAPs (GTPase Activating Proteins) specific for the Rac small GTPases regulated by the second messenger diacylglycerol (DAG) and the phorbol esters. In mammalians the genes CHN1 (or α) and CHN2 (or β) encode the four known isoforms...