Página 1 dos resultados de 999 itens digitais encontrados em 0.006 segundos

Envolvimento de Rac1 na excitotoxicidade induzida por NMDA na retina de ratos.; Involvement of Rac1 in NMDA-induced excitotoxicity in the rat retina.

Saito, Kelly Cristina
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/09/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
388.1831%
A ativação excessiva dos receptores NMDA tem sido descrita no disparo da morte neuronal que ocorre em doenças, como o glaucoma. É possível que a combinação de subunidades (NR2A-D) possa ativar vias de sinalização intracelulares que resultam na morte ou sobrevivência. Nosso objetivo foi investigar o envolvimento de subunidades NR2 e Rac1, membro da família Rho GTPase, na morte de neurônios da retina. A morte induzida por glutamato in vitro foi reduzida após a inibição de Rac1 e bloqueio de NR2B, mas não das subunidades NR2C/D. Resultados semelhantes foram obtidos in vivo após injeção intravítrea NMDA, e a detecção de Rac1 ativo, principalmente, nos processos de glia de Müller foi inibida pelo bloqueio NR2B. Além disso, a produção de TNF-α após a injeção de NMDA foi reduzida pelo bloqueio de NR2B e Rac1. Assim, nossos resultados sugerem que a excitotoxicidade via receptores NR2B/NMDA ativa Rac1 em células da glia de Müller, que por sua vez controla a produção de TNF-α possível responsável pela morte de células ganglionares da retina.; Overactivation of NMDA receptors has been described to trigger neuronal death that occurs in diseases such as glaucoma. It is possible that the combination of subunits (NR2A-D) activate intracellular signaling pathways that result in death or survival. Our aim was to investigate the involvement of NR2 subunits and Rac1...

Papel da dissulfeto isomerase proteica (PDI) na migração de células musculares lisas vasculares: possível envolvimento de Nox1 NADPH oxidase e RhoGTPases; The role of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) in vascular smooth muscle cell migration: possible interaction with Nox1 NADPH oxidase and RhoGTPases

Pescatore-Alves, Luciana
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/02/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
391.04742%
A migração de células musculares lisas (VSMC) da camada média do vaso para a íntima é essencial para vasculogênese e contribui para o processo de aterosclerose e estenose após lesão por cateter-balão, caracterizando-se como um importante alvo terapêutico. Diversos trabalhos já demonstraram que fatores de crescimento (como PDGF e FGF) estimulam a migração de VSMC, inclusive, muitos desses fatores de crescimento induzem sinalização redox associadas à geração de espécies reativas de oxigênio (ROS) (ex. Nox1 NADPH oxidase). Nosso grupo já descreveu interações físicas e regulação funcional da NADPH oxidase por uma chaperona redox do retículo endoplasmático, a Dissulfeto Isomerase Protéica (PDI). Contudo, tanto a relevância fisiológica como os mecanismos desta interação ainda não estão claros. O objetivo geral do presente trabalho é investigar por meio de experimentos de perda e ganho de função da PDI, a importância da PDI na migração celular associada à ativação do complexo NADPH oxidase, bem como possíveis mecanismos envolvidos na interação entre a PDI e esse complexo enzimático durante a migração celular. Os objetivos específicos são: i) avaliar o efeito do silenciamento da PDI, bem como da expressão forçada de PDI wild type na migração de VSMC in vitro; ii) analisar o efeito da transfecção de siRNA da PDI atividade e expressão de distintas isoformas da NADPH oxidase vascular e produção de ROS induzida por PDGF; iii) investigar o envolvimento de RhoGTPases na regulação do complexo NADPH oxidase pela PDI. No presente trabalho...

Exploring the multifactorial nature of autism through computational systems biology: Calcium and the Rho GTPase RAC1 under the spotlight

Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Rybarczyk-Filho, José Luiz; Salmina, Alla B.; De Oliveira, Ben-Hur Neves; Noda, Mami; Moreira, José Cláudio F.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Revisão Formato: 364-383
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
481.1012%
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction and communication accompanied with repetitive behavioral patterns and unusual stereotyped interests. Autism is considered a highly heterogeneous disorder with diverse putative causes and associated factors giving rise to variable ranges of symptomatology. Incidence seems to be increasing with time, while the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain virtually uncharacterized (or unknown). By systematic review of the literature and a systems biology approach, our aims were to examine the multifactorial nature of autism with its broad range of severity, to ascertain the predominant biological processes, cellular components, and molecular functions integral to the disorder, and finally, to elucidate the most central contributions (genetic and/or environmental) in silico. With this goal, we developed an integrative network model for gene-environment interactions (GENVI model) where calcium (Ca2+) was shown to be its most relevant node. Moreover, considering the present data from our systems biology approach together with the results from the differential gene expression analysis of cerebellar samples from autistic patients, we believe that RAC1, in particular...

Effect of blocking Rac1 expression in cholangiocarcinoma QBC939 cells

Xudong,Liu; Guangyi,Wang
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
388.1831%
Cholangiocarcinomas (CCs) are malignant tumors that originate from epithelial cells lining the biliary tree and gallbladder. Ras correlative C3 creotoxin substrate 1 (Rac1), a small guanosine triphosphatase, is a critical mediator of various aspects of endothelial cell functions. The objective of the present investigation was to study the effect of blocking Rac1 expression in CCs. Seventy-four extrahepatic CC (ECC) specimens and matched adjacent normal mucosa were obtained from the Department of Pathology, Inner Mongolia Medicine Hospital, between 2007 and 2009. Our results showed that the expression of Rac1 was significantly higher (53.12%) in tumor tissues than in normal tissues. Western blotting data indicated a significant reduction in Rac1-miRNA cell protein levels. Rac1-miRNA cell growth rate was significantly different at 24, 48, and 72 h after transfection. Flow cytometry analysis showed that Rac1-miRNA cells undergo apoptosis more effectively than control QBC939 cells. Blocking Rac1 expression by RNAi effectively inhibits the growth of CCs. miRNA silencing of the Rac1 gene suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis of QBC939 cells. These results suggest that Rac1 may be a new gene therapy target for CC. Blocking Rac1 expression in CC cells induces apoptosis of these tumor cells and may thus represent a new therapeutic approach.

Remedial Strategies in Structural Proteomics: Expression, Purification and Crystallization of the Vav1/Rac1 Complex

Brooun, Alexei; Foster, Scott A.; Chrencik, Jill E.; Chien, Ellen Y.T.; Kolatkar, Anand R.; Streiff, Markus; Ramage, Paul; Widmer, Hans; Weckbecker, Gisbert; Kuhn, Peter
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
396.83254%
The signal transduction pathway involving the Vav1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) and the Rac1 GTPase plays several key roles in the immune response mediated by the T cell receptor. Vav1 is also a unique member of the GEF family in that it contains a cysteine-rich domain (CRD) that is critical for Rac1 binding and maximal guanine nucleotide exchange activity, and thus may provide a unique protein-protein interface compared to other GEF/GTPase pairs. Here we have applied a number of remedial structural proteomics strategies, such as construct and expression optimization, surface mutagenesis, limited proteolysis, and protein formulation to successfully express, purify, and crystallize the Vav1-DH-PH-CRD/Rac1 complex in an active conformation. We have also systematically characterized various Vav1 domains in a GEF assay, and Rac1 in vitro binding experiments. In the context of Vav1-DH-PH-CRD, the zinc finger motif of the CRD is required for the expression of stable Vav1, as well as for activity in both a GEF assay and in vitro formation of a Vav1/Rac1 complex suitable for biophysical and structural characterization. Our data also indicate that the isolated CRD maintains a low level of specific binding to Rac1, appears to be folded based on 1D-NMR analysis and coordinates two zinc ions based on ICP-MS analysis. The protein reagents generated here are essential tools for the determination of a three dimensional Vav1/Rac1 complex crystal structure and possibly for the identification of inhibitors of the Vav1/Rac1 protein-protein interaction with potential to inhibit lymphocyte activation.

Rac1 Protein Rescues Neurite Retraction Caused by G2019S Leucine-rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2)*

Chan, Diane; Citro, Allison; Cordy, Joanna M.; Shen, Grace C.; Wolozin, Benjamin
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
388.1831%
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are currently the most common genetic cause of familial late-onset Parkinson disease, which is clinically indistinguishable from idiopathic disease. The most common pathological mutation in LRRK2, G2019S LRRK2, is known to cause neurite retraction. However, molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of neurite length by LRRK2 are unknown. Here, we demonstrate a novel interaction between LRRK2 and the Rho GTPase, Rac1, which plays a critical role in actin cytoskeleton remodeling necessary for the maintenance of neurite morphology. LRRK2 binds strongly to endogenous or expressed Rac1, while showing weak binding to Cdc42 and no binding to RhoA. Co-expression with LRRK2 increases Rac1 activity, as shown by increased binding to the p21-activated kinase, which modulates actin cytoskeletal dynamics. LRRK2 constructs carrying mutations that inactivate the kinase or GTPase activities do not activate Rac1. Interestingly, LRRK2 does not increase levels of membrane-bound Rac1 but dramatically changes the cellular localization of Rac1, causing polarization, which is augmented further when LRRK2 is co-expressed with constitutively active Rac1. Four different disease-related mutations in LRRK2 altered binding to Rac1...

Rac1 Signaling Is Required for Insulin-Stimulated Glucose Uptake and Is Dysregulated in Insulin-Resistant Murine and Human Skeletal Muscle

Sylow, Lykke; Jensen, Thomas E.; Kleinert, Maximilian; Højlund, Kurt; Kiens, Bente; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Prats, Clara; Schjerling, Peter; Richter, Erik A.
Fonte: American Diabetes Association Publicador: American Diabetes Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
388.1831%
The actin cytoskeleton–regulating GTPase Rac1 is required for insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation in cultured muscle cells. However, involvement of Rac1 and its downstream signaling in glucose transport in insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant mature skeletal muscle has not previously been investigated. We hypothesized that Rac1 and its downstream target, p21-activated kinase (PAK), are regulators of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in mouse and human skeletal muscle and are dysregulated in insulin-resistant states. Muscle-specific inducible Rac1 knockout (KO) mice and pharmacological inhibition of Rac1 were used to determine whether Rac1 regulates insulin-stimulated glucose transport in mature skeletal muscle. Furthermore, Rac1 and PAK1 expression and signaling were investigated in muscle of insulin-resistant mice and humans. Inhibition and KO of Rac1 decreased insulin-stimulated glucose transport in mouse soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles ex vivo. Rac1 KO mice showed decreased insulin and glucose tolerance and trended toward higher plasma insulin concentrations after intraperitoneal glucose injection. Rac1 protein expression and insulin-stimulated PAKThr423 phosphorylation were decreased in muscles of high fat–fed mice. In humans...

Role of Rac1 GTPase in JNK Signaling and Delayed Neuronal Cell Death Following Global Cerebral Ischemia

Zhang, Quan-Guang; Wang, Ruimin; Han, Dong; Brann, Darrell W.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
394.46168%
The overall goal of this study was to determine the role of Rac1 in POSH/MLK/JNK signaling and delayed neuronal cell death following cerebral ischemia. Temporal studies revealed that Rac1 GTPase activation was significantly elevated in hippocampus CA1 at 10 min to 72h after cerebral ischemia reperfusion, with peak levels 30 min to 6h after reperfusion. Total Rac1 protein levels were not significantly changed following cerebral ischemia. Rac1 has been shown to interact with POSH (plenty of SH3s), a scaffold protein that binds to and regulates MLK3 and JNK activation. Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) studies revealed that POSH-Rac1-MLK3 complex formation displayed a significant and prolonged elevation after reperfusion, with a correlative increase in phosphorylation/activation of MLK3 as compared to sham controls. Intracerebroventricular administration of Rac1 antisense oligonucleotides (AS-ODNs) significantly attenuated Rac1 levels and Rac1 activation at 30min after reperfusion, with a correlated significant attenuation of POSH-MLK3-Rac1 complex formation and MLK3 activation in hippocampus CA1. Infusion of Rac1 AS-ODNs also significantly attenuated post-ischemic activation of JNK, downstream of MLK3, and strongly protected the hippocampus CA1 from ischemic damage. Missense oligos had no effect on any of the parameters measured. The Rac1 AS-ODNs results were further confirmed by administration of a Rac1 inhibitor (NSC23766)...

The small GTPase Rac1 is required for smooth muscle contraction

Rahman, Awahan; Davis, Benjamin; Lövdahl, Cecilia; Hanumaiah, Veena T; Feil, Robert; Brakebusch, Cord; Arner, Anders
Fonte: John Wiley & Sons Ltd Publicador: John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
394.2878%
The role of the small GTP-binding protein Rac1 in smooth muscle contraction was examined using small molecule inhibitors (EHT1864, NSC23766) and a novel smooth muscle-specific, conditional, Rac1 knockout mouse strain. EHT1864, which affects nucleotide binding and inhibits Rac1 activity, concentration-dependently inhibited the contractile responses induced by several different modes of activation (high-K+, phenylephrine, carbachol and protein kinase C activation by phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate) in several different visceral (urinary bladder, ileum) and vascular (mesenteric artery, saphenous artery, aorta) smooth muscle tissues. This contractile inhibition was associated with inhibition of the Ca2+ transient. Knockout of Rac1 (with a 50% loss of Rac1 protein) lowered active stress in the urinary bladder and the saphenous artery consistent with a role of Rac1 in facilitating smooth muscle contraction. NSC23766, which blocks interaction between Rac1 and some guanine nucleotide exchange factors, specifically inhibited the α1 receptor responses (phenylephrine) in vascular tissues and potentiated prostaglandin F2α and thromboxane (U46619) receptor responses. The latter potentiating effect occurred at lowered intracellular [Ca2+]. These results show that Rac1 activity is required for active contraction in smooth muscle...

Epithelial-specific knockout of the Rac1 gene leads to enamel defects

Huang, Zhan; Kim, Jieun; Lacruz, Rodrigo; Bringas, Pablo; Kaartinen, Vesa M.; Snead, Malcolm L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
395.01383%
Rac1 encodes a 21kDa GTP-binding protein belonging to the RAS superfamily. RAS members play important roles in controlling focal adhesion complex formation and cytoskeleton contraction; activities with consequences to cell growth, adhesion, migration, and differentiation. To examine the role(s) played by Rac1 protein in cell-to-matrix interaction and in enamel matrix biomineralization we used the Cre/loxP binary recombination system to characterize enamel matrix proteins expression and enamel formation in Rac1 knockout mice. Mating between mice bearing the floxed Rac1 allele with mice bearing a keratin14-Cre transgene generate animals in which Rac1 is absent from epithelial organs. The enamel of Rac1 conditional knockout mouse was characterized by computerized tomography (microCT), light microscopy, histochemistry, and back-scatter electron microscopy. Enamel matrix protein expression was analyzed by Western blotting. Major findings showed that the Tomes’ processes of Rac1−/− ameloblasts loose contact with the forming enamel matrix in un-erupted teeth. The abundance of amelogenin and ameloblastin was reduced in the Rac1−/− ameloblasts. After eruption, the enamel from the Rac1−/− mice displayed severe structural defects with the complete loss of enamel. These results support an essential role for Rac1 function in the dental epithelium involving cell-matrix interaction and matrix biomineralization.

Type II cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase inhibits Rac1 activation in gastric cancer cells

WANG, YING; CHEN, YONGCHANG; WU, MIN; LAN, TING; WU, YAN; LI, YUEYING; QIAN, HAI
Fonte: D.A. Spandidos Publicador: D.A. Spandidos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
399.5721%
Enhanced motility of cancer cells is a critical step in promoting tumor metastasis, which remains the major cause of gastric cancer-associated mortality. The small GTPase Rac1 is a key signaling component in the regulation of cell migration. Previous studies have demonstrated that Rac1 activity may be regulated by protein kinase G (PKG); however, the underlying mechanism is not yet clear. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of type II cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG II) on Rac1 activity. The human gastric cancer cell line AGS was infected with adenoviral constructs encoding PKG II to increase the expression of this enzyme, and treated with a cGMP analog (8-pCPT-cGMP) to induce its activation. A Transwell assay was employed to measure cell migration, and the activity of Rac1 was assessed using a pull-down assay. Immunoprecipitation was used to isolate the Rac1 protein. Phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate 3 kinase (PI3K) and its downstream effecter protein kinase B (Akt) are associated with lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced motility/migration of cancer cells. Extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) is the major signaling molecule of the Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) mediated signaling pathway. ERK and its upstream activator MAPK kinase (MEK) are also involved in LPA-induced motility/migration of cancer cells. Phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt...

Étude des mécanismes moléculaires menant à la migration cellulaire associée à Rac1 et ARF6.

Cotton, Mathieu
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
398.95277%
Le facteur de l’ADP-ribosylation 6 (ARF6) et Rac1 sont des petites protéines liant le GTP qui régulent plusieurs voies de signalisation comprenant le trafic de vésicules, la modification des lipides membranaires et la réorganisation du cytosquelette d’actine. Cependant, les mécanismes moléculaires par lesquels ARF6 et Rac1 agissent de concert afin de contrôler ces différents processus cellulaires restent méconnus. Dans cette étude, nous montrons que, dans les cellules HEK293, ARF6 et Rac1 sont retrouvées en complexe suite à la stimulation du récepteur à l’angiotensine. Des expériences réalisées in vitro nous indiquent que ces deux GTPases interagissent ensemble directement, et que ARF6 s’associe préférentiellement avec la forme inactive de Rac1. L’inhibition de l’expression de ARF6 par interférence à l’ARN entraîne une activation marquée en cellule de Rac1 via le facteur PIX, indépendamment de la stimulation d’un récepteur, ce qui provoque la migration non contrôlée des cellules. Les arrestines, protéines de régulation de la désensibilisation des récepteurs couplés aux protéines G, servent de protéines d’échafaudage pour Rac1 et ARF6, en interagissant directement avec les GTPases et en augmentant leur association stimulée par l’angiotensine. De plus...

ARF1 contrôle la migration des cellules hautement invasives du cancer du sein via Rac1

Lewis-Saravalli, Sebastian
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
390.53156%
Dans un contexte où la forte prévalence du cancer du sein chez les femmes demeure depuis plusieurs années un enjeu de société majeur, les nouvelles stratégies visant à réduire la mortalité associée à cette maladie sont le sujet de nombreuses recherches scientifiques. Les facteurs d’ADP-ribosylation sont des petites protéines G monomériques importantes pour la réorganisation du cytosquelette d’actine, le remodelage des lipides membranaires et la formation de vésicules. Notre laboratoire a précédemment montré qu’ARF1 est surexprimée dans les cellules hautement invasives du cancer du sein et contribue à leur phénotype migratoire accru. Dans le cadre de ce mémoire, nous avons défini le rôle de cette GTPase dans la migration de telles lignées cellulaires. Pour ce faire, nous avons étudié le rôle d’ARF1 dans l’activation de Rac1, un membre de la famille des GTPases Rho connu pour son implication dans la formation de lamellipodes ainsi que dans la migration cellulaire. Globalement, nous avons déterminé que l’activation d’ARF1 permet l’activation subséquente de Rac1 ainsi que de la voie de signalisation nécessaire au processus de migration. Par une approche d’interférence à l’ARN dans les cellules MDA-MB-231...

O papel de RhoA e Rac1 GTPases nas respostas celulares após danos no DNA induzidos por radiação ionizante gama; The role of RhoA and Rac1 GTPases in cellular responses after DNA damage induced by ionizing gamma radiation

Osaki, Juliana Harumi
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/06/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
391.59902%
O mecanismo pelo qual uma célula responde a algum dano no seu material genético é extremamente importante. Isto ocorre pela rápida ativação da maquinaria de reparo de danos no DNA, a qual é composta por uma rede intrincada de sinalização proteica, culminando no reparo do DNA; porém se o dano for irreparável ocorre ativação de mecanismos de morte celular. RhoA,e Rac1 pertencem a família das pequenas proteínas sinalizadoras Rho GTPases, as quais atuam como interruptores moleculares ciclando entre estado ativo (ligada a GTP) e inativo (ligada a GDP). Os componentes desta família estão relacionados ao controle dos mais diversos processos celulares como, por exemplo, remodelamento do citoesqueleto, migração, adesão, endocitose, progressão do ciclo celular e oncogênese. No entanto, apesar das proteínas Rho GTPases estarem envolvidas em um amplo espectro de atividades biológicas, há poucas informações sobre seu papel na manutenção da integridade genômica quando células são submetidas a algum agente genotóxico. Para investigar o envolvimento das GTPases RhoA e Rac1 nas respostas de células submetidas a radiação gama, foram gerados, a partir de células de carcinoma de cervix humano - HeLa, sublinhagens clonais mutantes de RhoA e Rac1 expressando exogenamente RhoA constitutivamente ativa (HeLa-RhoA V14)...

Protein kinase WNK2 as a tumour suppressor gene in malignant gliomas

Moniz, S.; Martinho, O.; Reis, R.M.; Jordan, P.
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge, IP Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge, IP
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /06/2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
387.145%
Malignant glioblastomas are the most common and lethal adult brain tumours, with patients dying within two years from diagnosis. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation and/or development of these tumours, which present a very invasive phenotype within the brain and are genetically heterogeneous and highly resistant to both chemo- and radio-therapies. Recently, the promoter region of the protein kinase WNK2 gene was found to be hypermethylated in 29 of 31 infiltrative gliomas and about 80% of meningiomas. We have previously described that the experimental depletion of WNK2 expression decreases RhoA activity whilst leading to increased Rac1 activity. Because RhoA/Rac1 activities are important for cell migration and glioblastomas are very invasive tumours, we tested the effects of WNK2 on wound-healing assays in glioma cell lines SW1088 and A172. SW1088 cells express endogenous WNK2 and we observed that wound closure was increased upon experimental depletion of endogenous WNK2. In contrast, A172 cells display complete promoter region methylation and WNK2 re-expression was found to decrease migration. Consistently, we observed an increase in Rac1 activity in SW1088 cells upon WNK2 down-regulation, but lower levels of active Rac1 in A172 cells stably expressing WNK2 cDNA when compared with an equivalent cell line stably transfected with the same empty vector. Our studies indicate that loss of WNK2 expression promotes Rac1 activation and may contribute to the highly invasive phenotype that glioblastomas present. We also observed that...

Protein kinase WNK2 regulates cell migration in malignant gliomas

Moniz, S.; Martinho, O.; Reis, R.M.; Jordan, P.
Fonte: INSA,IP Publicador: INSA,IP
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /04/2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
387.145%
Malignant glioblastomas are the most common and lethal adult brain tumours, with patients dying within two years from diagnosis. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation and/or development of these tumours, which present a very invasive phenotype within the brain and are genetically heterogeneous and highly resistant to both chemo- and radio-therapies. Recently, the promoter region of the protein kinase WNK2 gene was found to be hypermethylated in 29 of 31 infiltrative gliomas and about 80% of meningiomas. We have previously described that the experimental depletion of WNK2 expression decreases RhoA activity whilst leading to increased Rac1 activity. Because RhoA/Rac1 activities are important for cell migration and glioblastomas are very invasive tumours, we tested the effects of WNK2 on wound-healing assays in glioma cell lines SW1088 and A172. SW1088 cells express endogenous WNK2 and we observed that wound closure was increased upon experimental depletion of endogenous WNK2. In contrast, A172 cells display complete promoter region methylation and WNK2 re-expression was found to decrease migration. Consistently, we observed an increase in Rac1 activity in SW1088 cells upon WNK2 down-regulation, but lower levels of active Rac1 in A172 cells stably expressing WNK2 cDNA when compared with an equivalent cell line stably transfected with the same empty vector. Our studies indicate that loss of WNK2 expression promotes Rac1 activation and may contribute to the highly invasive phenotype that glioblastomas present. We also observed that...

Protein Kinase WNK2 has a Tumour Suppressor Role in Gliomas

Moniz, Sonia; Martinho, Olga; Pinto, Filipe; Reis, Rui Manuel; Jordan, Peter
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge, IP Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge, IP
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 27/09/2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
389.3672%
Malignant glioblastoma is the most common and lethal adult brain tumour type. Recently, the promoter region of the protein kinaseWNK2 gene was found to be hypermethylated in 29 of 31 infiltrative gliomas and about 5 of 7 meningiomas. We have previously described that theexperimental depletion of WNK2 expression decreases RhoA activity whilst leading to increased Rac1 activity. RhoA/Rac1 activities are important forcell migration and glioblastomas are very invasive tumours so that we tested the effects of WNK2 on wound-healing assays in glioma cell lines SW1088and A172. SW1088 cells express endogenous WNK2 and we observed that wound closure was increased upon experimental depletion of endogenousWNK2. In contrast, A172 cells display complete promoter region methylation and WNK2 re-expression was found to decrease migration. Consistently,we observed an increase in Rac1 activity in SW1088 cells upon WNK2 down-regulation, but lower levels of active Rac1 in A172 cells stably expressingWNK2 cDNA when compared with an equivalent cell line stably transfected with the same empty vector. Our studies indicate that loss of WNK2expression promotes Rac1 activation and may contribute to the highly invasive phenotype that glioblastomas present.; Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia

Role of Rac1 in regulation of NOX5-S function in Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma cells

Hong, Jie; Resnick, Murray; Behar, Jose; Wands, Jack; DeLellis, Ronald A.; Cao, Weibiao
Fonte: American Physiological Society Publicador: American Physiological Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
389.80254%
We have shown that a novel NADPH oxidase isoform, NOX5-S, is the major isoform of NADPH oxidases in an esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) cell line, FLO, and is overexpressed in Barrett's mucosa with high-grade dysplasia. NOX5-S is responsible for acid-induced reactive oxygen species production. In this study, we found that mRNA levels of NOX5-S were significantly higher in FLO EA cells than in the normal human esophageal squamous cell line HET-1A or in a Barrett cell line, BAR-T. The mRNA levels of NOX5-S were also significantly increased in EA tissues. The data suggest that NOX5-S may be important in the development of EA. Mechanisms of functional regulation of NOX5-S are not fully understood. We show that small G protein Rac1 was present in HET-1A cells, BAR-T cells, and EA cell lines FLO and OE33. Rac1 protein levels were significantly higher in FLO and OE33 cells than in HET-1A or BAR-T cells. Knockdown of Rac1 with Rac1 small interfering RNA significantly decreased acid-induced increase in H2O2 production in FLO EA cells. Overexpression of constitutively active Rac1 significantly increased H2O2 production, an increase that was blocked by knockdown of NOX5-S. By immunofluorescence staining and immunoprecipitation, we found that NOX5-S was present in the cytosol of FLO EA cells and colocalized with Rac1 and SERCA1/2 Ca2+-ATPase which is located in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. We conclude that Rac1 may be important in activation of NOX5-S in FLO EA cells.

p120-catenin and Rac1: key players in canonical Wnt signaling

Valls Sierra, Gabriela
Fonte: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
396.6486%
En aquest treball hem investigat el rol de la p120-catenina en la via de senyalització de Wnt. Hem demostrat per primera vegada la importància d'aquesta catenina en l'activació de la GTPasa Rac1 i en la translocació de la β-catenina al nucli en resposta a la via canònica de Wnt. La via de Wnt ha estat àmpliament estudiada degut a la seva forta implicació en funcions essencials de cèl·lules epitelials normals i patològiques. Tot i que s'han descrit moltes proteïnes implicades en la via de Wnt, queden encara molts detalls per descriure sobre la regulació de l'activitat d'aquestes. Recentment, s'ha descrit que Rac1 és essencial per la translocació de la β-catenina al nucli (Wu X, et al. Cell 2008,133:340-53). El Rac1 actiu controla la localització nuclear de la β-catenina durant la via canònica de Wnt. Tot i així, el mecanisme d'activació d'aquesta GTPasa no ha estat investigat. En aquest treball es demostra que la p120-catenina és necessària per l'activació de Rac1, actuant com a proteïna acobladora de Rac1 i el seu activador Vav2. La interacció de les dues proteïnes amb la p120-catenina és estimulada per la fosforilació de CK1 i la defosforilació en residus tirosina, dues modificacions post-traduccionals que són activades pel factor Wnt3a. Quan sobre-expressem en cèl·lules diferents mutants de la p120-catenina que no uneixen ni Vav2 ni Rac1...

Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type S (PTPRS) Regulates Hematopoietic Stem Cell Self-Renewal

Quarmyne, Mamle
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
390.55805%

Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation are regulated by signaling through protein tyrosine kinases (PTK) such as c-kit, Flt-3 and Tie2. PTKs work in concert with receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) to maintain cellular equilibrium. The functions of PTPs in counterbalancing PTK signaling in HSCs however remain incompletely understood. Our laboratory has demonstrated that a heparin binding growth factor, Pleiotrophin (PTN), promotes the expansion of murine long-term (LT)-HSCs via binding to a PTP, protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type Z (PTPRZ). The addition of PTN to murine PTPRZ-/- c-Kit+Sca-1+Lineage- (KSL) cells caused no expansion of HSCs in culture, suggesting that PTPRZ mediates PTN effects on HSC growth. We subsequently screened for the expression of other receptor PTPs in murine HSCs. Among 21 different receptor PTPs, we found that protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type S (PTPRS) was significantly overexpressed in mouse and human HSCs compared to more mature hematopoietic cells. Ptprs-/- mice displayed no difference in mature blood counts or phenotypic HSC frequency compared to Ptprs+/+ mice. However, competitive transplantation of bone marrow (BM) cells from Ptprs-/- mice resulted in more than 8-fold increased multilineage hematopoietic repopulation in primary and secondary recipient mice compared to mice transplanted with BM cells from Ptprs+/+ mice. While Ptprs-/- mice displayed no differences in cell cycle status...