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Intoxicação espontânea por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) em ovinos no Rio Grande do Sul; Spontaneous poisoning in sheep by Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) in southern Brazil

Ilha, Márcia R. S.; Loretti, Alexandre Paulino; Barros, Severo Sales; Barros, Claudio Santos Liborio
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
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Descreve-se a ocorrência de um surto de intoxicação espontânea por Senecio brasiliensis em ovinos em um estabelecimento do município de Mata, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, em meados de janeiro de 1997. De um total de 94 ovinos, 51 (54,25%) animais adoeceram e 50 (53,2%) morreram. Esse rebanho permaneceu durante aproximadamente 7 meses (de junho de 1996 a janeiro de 1997) em piquetes de pastagem nativa onde havia grande quantidade de S. brasiliensis. O quadro clínico manifestado pelos animais afetados consistia em fotossensibilização, emagrecimento progressivo, apatia, fraqueza, perturbações neurológicas como depressão, andar a esmo e desequilibrado, icterícia e hemoglobinúria. Houve melhora das lesões de pele naqueles ovinos que desenvolveram fotossensibilização hepatógena depois que foram retirados do sol. As principais lesões macroscópicas observadas em 9 dos 10 ovinos necropsiados incluíam fígado diminuído de tamanho, firme, difusamente marrom amarelado ou esverdeado, com quantidades variáveis de nódulos de 1-3 mm de diâmetro, bem circunscritos, salientes na cápsula, amarelados, distribu ídos aleatoriamente por todo o parênquima. A vesícula biliar estava repleta e preenchida por bile verde escura e espessa. Havia também derrames cavitários (hidropericárdio e ascite). Crise hemolítica aguda fatal associada à intoxicação crônica hepatógena por cobre foi observada em cinco ovinos. Além das lesões hepáticas macroscópicas já mencionadas...

Alterações clínicas e patológicas em ovinos infectados naturalmente pelo vírus da língua azul no Rio Grande do Sul; Clinical and pathological changes in sheep naturally infected with bluetongue virus in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Antoniassi, Nadia Aline Bobbi; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti; Ribeiro, Luiz Alberto Oliveira; Silva, Mariana Silva da; Flores, Eduardo Furtado; Driemeier, David
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
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Língua azul (LA) é uma doença causada pelo vírus da língua azul (VLA) e transmitida por vetores do gênero Culicoides. Estudos sorológicos têm demonstrado a ampla presença do vírus no Brasil; entretanto, informações clínicas da LA na América do Sul são limitadas. Esse trabalho descreve alterações clínico-patológicas em ovinos acometidos pela LA no Sul do Brasil. Em dois surtos, em propriedades distintas, 15 ovinos apresentaram como principais sinais clínicos hipertermia, apatia, aumento de volume da face e região submandibular, dificuldade de deglutição com regurgitação, secreção nasal mucopurulenta esverdeada, alterações respiratórias, além de acentuada perda de peso e erosões na mucosa oral. Os achados de necropsia em seis ovinos afetados incluíram edema subcutâneo na face e região ventral do tórax, secreção nasal esverdeada, esôfago dilatado preenchido por grande quantidade de conteúdo alimentar, pulmões não colabados com áreas consolidadas anteroventrais, bem como luz da traquéia e brônquios preenchida por espuma misturada com conteúdo alimentar. No coração e base da artéria pulmonar, havia focos de hemorragia. Histologicamente, as principais alterações observadas ocorriam no tecido muscular cardíaco e esquelético...

Epidemiology of sheep myiases in São Paulo State, Brazil

Amarante, A. F T; Barbosa, M. A.; Oliveira-Sequeira, T. C.; Fernandes, S.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 36-39
ENG
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A survey of Diptera species causing cutaneous myiases on sheep in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil was made to determine seasonal incidence, predilection sites and the factors predisposing to infestation. Sheep were checked daily for myiases for one year. At two week intervals larvae from wounds were collected for identification. Only larvae of Dermatobia hominis and Cochliomyia hominivorax were found. Myiases due to C. hominivorax were observed during the whole year with high incidence from January to April. The feet, vulva, tail and scrotum were most frequently infested. Wounds were the commonest predisposing factor. © 1992 Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh.

Optic neuropathy in sheep associated with overdosage of closantel

Secorun Borges, Alexandre; Nogueria Mendes, Luiz Claudio; Lima de Andrade, Alexandre; Machado, Gisele Fabrino; Peiro, Juliana Regina
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 378-380
ENG
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This report describes clinical and pathological findings in 2 flocks in Brazil where blindness and deaths in sheep occurred after closantel overdosage. Depression, weakness, and blindness affected 37 animals and 17 died in 2 flocks of 190 animals. Two animals submitted for ophthalmic examination showed no inflammation in the anterior segment of both eyes; posterior segment evaluation by indirect ophthalmoscopy suggested retinal degeneration. One postmortem evaluation local spongy vacuolization was in several regions of the brain and the optical nerves had severe axonal degeneration.

The detection of Toxoplasma gondii by comparing cytology, histopathology, bioassay in mice, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

Silva, Aristeu Vieira da; Langoni, Helio
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 191-198
ENG
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The objective of this study was to compare the different methods of detecting Toxoplasma gondii in sheep tissue, tested serologically positive by the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Brain, diaphragm, and blood samples were collected from 522 sheep slaughtered at the São Manuel abattoir, São Paulo State, Brazil. Brain and diaphragm samples from IFAT seropositive animals were digested by both trypsin and pepsin and then injected into mice. Part of the digested samples was used to prepare slides for Giemsa staining and in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Tissue fragments were fixed in formalin and examined using hematoxilin-eosin (HE). Forty of the sheep (7.7%) were IFAT positive. T. gondii was isolated in 23 (59.0%) of the 39 mice with pepsin-digested brain samples and in 27 (69.0%) of the 39 with trypsin-digested brain samples. Injection of diaphragm samples led to T. gondii isolation in 26 (66.7%) of the 39 pepsin-digested samples and 21 (53.8%) of the 39 trypsin-digested samples. Cytological and hystopathological examination of both brains and diaphragms was negative in all examined sheep. PCR was positive in 7 (17.9%) of the trypsin and 2 (5.1%) of the pepsin-digested samples, while 9 (23.1%) of the trypsin and 3 (7.7%) of the pepsin-digested samples showed T. gondii DNA. T. gondii isolation rate in mice (n = 34; 85.0%) was significantly higher than detection by PCR (n = 15; 37.5%). © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

Semen variables of sheep (Ovis aries) experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii

Lopes, W. D. Z.; Costa, A. J.; Souza, F. A.; Rodrigues, J. D. F.; Costa, G. H. N.; Soares, V. E.; Silva, G. S.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 312-319
ENG
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The influence of Toxoplasma gondii on semen variables and sperm morphology of sheep was evaluated in eight reproductive males distributed into three experimental groups: GI, three sheep inoculated with 2.0 × 105 of P strain oocytes; GII, three sheep infected with 1.0 × 106 of RH strain tachyzoites and; GIII two control sheep. Clinical (rectal temperature, cardiac and respiratory frequencies), parasite and serology exams (IIF) were realized. Sperm variables (volume, motility, vigor and concentration) and semen morphology for each sheep were also evaluated. Thus, semen and blood collections were assessed on post-inoculation days (PIDs)-1,3,5,7,11,14 and weekly thereafter up to PID 70. Clinical alterations were observed (hypothermia and anorexia) in infected sheep from groups GI and GII. Parasitic outbreaks were detected in five sheep. All the infected sheep produced antibodies against T. gondii from PID 5 onwards, reaching a peak of 4096 and 8192 for group GI and GII sheep, respectively. Differences (P < 0.05) were observed regarding the ejaculate volume between the inoculated groups (oocytes and tachyzoites) and control. Even though experimental toxoplasmic infection resulted in clinical symptomology in the inoculated sheep, the minimal alterations in sperm pathologies could not be directly attributed to T. gondii. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Health management practices and disease prevalence in dairy sheep systems in Argentina

Suárez,Victor H.; Busetti,Margarita R.
Fonte: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA) Publicador: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2009 EN
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A cross-sectional survey of 19 dairy sheep farms in Argentina was carried out with the purpose to know farm management, health practices, and occurrence and mortality of diseases. The survey comprised 40% of all sheep milking farms in Argentina. A questionnaire was conducted by way of personal interviews with sheep owners during farm visits. The proportions of farms reporting routine vaccination for clostridial diseases, contagious ecthyma, pneumonia and mineral and vitamin parenteral administration were 63%, 47.3%, 16.6% and 42.1% respectively. Regular treatment against lice was used in 37.5% of the farms, and 89.5% o the farmers treated against gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). The mean number of GIN drenches per farm was 2.26±1.78 annually. In 68.4% of the milking flocks the California Mastitis Test was regularly done and 55.6% of the farmer managers had sampled their flocks once a year for Brucella ovis antibodies. During the pre-mating period respectively 68.4% and 50% of farmers clinically examined their rams and ewe for general health and teeth condition. The udders of ewes were frequently inspected at the start of each milking period. The most important parasite problems noticed were GIN (reported by 57.9% of farmers)...

Chronic cardiomyopathy and encephalic spongy changes in sheep experimentally fed Ateleia glazioviana

Raffi,Margarida Buss; Rech,Raquel Rubia; Sallis,Elisa Simone Viegas; Rodrigues,Aline; Barros,Claudio Severo Lombardo de
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2006 EN
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Fifteen mature crossbred sheep were fed different daily amounts (2.5-35g kg-1 bw) of the fresh green leaves of Ateleia glazioviana for different periods of time (1-24 days). One sheep was not fed the plant and served as a control. All 16 sheep were euthanatized at different stages of the experiment, necropsied, and several organs, including heart and brain were evaluated histologically. Samples of five brain regions from three affected sheep were evaluated by electron microscopy. Clinical signs observed in three sheep included depression, anorexia, general weakness, staggering gait and prolonged recumbency. One sheep had signs of congestive heart failure. Necropsy findings included subcutaneous dependent edema and edema of the body cavities in two sheep and nutmeg liver in one. Histopathological findings included degeneration, necrosis and interstitial fibrosis in the myocardium of four sheep and vacuolation of cerebral white matter (spongy degeneration, status spongiosus) in 10 sheep, although this latter change were marked only in two of those 10. The ultrastructure of the brain lesion was morphologically consistent with that found in diseases grouped as spongiform myelinopathies in which vacuolation of the myelin occurs in the absence of significant myelin breakdown or phagocytosis. The morphology and pathogenesis of the chronic cardiomyopathy and of the cerebral spongy degeneration in affected sheep in this experiment are discussed and compared with other similar conditions in domestic ruminants.

A survey of sheep diseases in Canada.

Dohoo, I R; Curtis, R A; Finley, G G
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1985 EN
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A mail survey of disease occurrence in Canadian sheep flocks was conducted. The survey, which covered the period from September 1982 to August 1983, utilized flocks on the Record of Performance (ROP) sheep program and relatively complete data were available from 116 flocks. Data about lambing rates, incidence of a variety of lamb and ewe diseases and reasons for culling were obtained. At the same time a retrospective evaluation of records of diagnoses of sheep diseases recorded at diagnostic laboratories across the country was performed. Data from the years 1978 to 1982 were obtained and summarized. A lambing percentage of 153% (1.53 lambs live born per ewe lambing) was observed and an additional 0.05 lambs were stillborn. The major identified causes of mortality amongst lambs were starvation, pneumonia, scours and accidents. Pasteurella spp. were the etiological agents most commonly associated with pneumonia in lambs and Escherichia coli had the same predominant position with regards to nonparasitic scours. A large discrepancy existed between the proportional mortality rates for internal parasites and coccidiosis as determined from the farm survey data compared to diagnostic laboratory data. This suggests that clinical parasitism may not be adequately recognized at the farm level. Abortions in ewes occurred in approximately half the flocks...

Fotossensibilização e colangiopatia associada a cristais em ovinos em pastagem com Brachiaria Decumbens

Lemos, Ricardo Antônio Amaral de; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos Louzada; Silva, Sérgio Martins da; Nakazato, Luciano; Salvador, Sandro Cesar
Fonte: Ciência Rural Publicador: Ciência Rural
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
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Dois surtos de fotossensibilização foram observados em ovinos em pastagens de Brachiaria decumbens no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. O quadro clínico incluía edema e dermatite da face, orelhas e pálpebras, conjuntivite, descarga ocular, cegueira e aumento nos níveis séricos de ASTe GT. Alguns ovinos recuperaram-se e outros morreram em 3-7 dias. O fígado apresentou leve aumento de volume e consistência e coloração amarelo-esbranquiçada ou marrom-amarelada. Os ductos biliares e a vesícula biliar estavam dilatados. A principal alteração histológica foi a presença de cristais birrefringentes, eticamente ativos nos ductos biliares e no citoplasma de hepatócitos periportais. Necrose do epitélio dos ductos biliares, fibrose periportal com infiltração de células inflamatórias e proliferação de ductos biliares também foram observadas. Grupos de células grandes com núcleo excêntrico e citoplasma espumoso ocorriam nas regiões periportal e centrolobular. Numerosos grupos destas células também foram observadas no córtex e na medula dos linfonodos hepáticos. Não foram encontradas quantidades contáveis de esporos de Pithomyces chartarum nas amostras da pastagem onde estavam os ovinos; de 30 culturas de P. chartarum isoladas dessas amostras...

Efficacy of intra-muscular analgesics for acute pain in sheep

Grant, C.; Upton, R.; Kuchel, T.
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1996 EN
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The analgesic action of intramuscularly injected buprenorphine, methadone, flunixin meglumine and xylazine was examined in sheep, using algesimetry based on a leg withdrawal response to an electrical stimulus. No analgesic response was detected for buprenorphine, methadone or flunixin meglumine. Only the alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, xylazine, produced an analgesic response. The current required to elicit a response increased by 170% (4.5 +/- 0.43 mA to 12.23 +/- 1.14 mA; mean +/- SE) after a dose of 0.05 mg/kg xylazine; by 180% (4.73 +/- 0.3 mA to 13.28 +/- 2.35 mA) after 0.1 mg/kg and by 510% (4.52 +/- 0.29 mA to 27.63 +/- 3.89 mA) after 0.2 mg/kg. Intramuscular xylazine appears to be an effective analgesic agent for acute pain in the sheep and further investigation into ideal administration regimens and dosage may provide more detailed information on relationships between dose, analgesic and sedative effects. The findings also suggest that some common analgesic agents, and opioids in particular, may be ineffective for the management of acute pain in sheep and that any analgesic should be administered only on the basis of its proven efficacy in that species.

Gaucher disease in sheep

Karageorgos, L.; Lancaster, M.; Nimmo, J.; Hopwood, J.
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publ Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publ
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
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Gaucher disease, an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the β-glucocerebrosidase gene, was recently discovered in sheep on a "Southdown" sheep stud in Victoria, Australia. Clinical signs include neuropathy, thickened leathery skin, and ichthyosis, with lambs unable to stand from birth. Affected lambs were found to be deficient in glucocerebrosidase activity, and mutational analysis found them to be homozygous for the missense mutations c.1142G>A (p.C381Y) and c.1400C>T (p.P467L). In addition, four silent mutations were detected (c.777C>A [p.Y259Y], c1203A>G [p.Q401Q], c.1335T>C [p.I445I], c.1464C>G [p.L488L]). The human equivalent [C342Y] to the C381Y mutation leads to an acute neuronopathic phenotype in patients. Identification of an acute neuronopathic form of Gaucher disease in sheep provides a large animal model that will enable studies of pathology and evaluation of therapies to treat this common lysosomal storage disorder.

Prevalence of Neospora caninum antibodies in sheep and goats in Pakistan

Nasir, A.; Ashraf, M.; Khan, M.; Javeed, A.; Yaqub, T.; Avais, M.; Reichel, M.
Fonte: American Society of Parasitologists Publicador: American Society of Parasitologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
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The purpose of the present study was to obtain seroepidemiological information on the Neospora caninum infection status of sheep and goats in different areas of Punjab Province and Azad Kashmir (Pakistan). A cross-sectional study, with the use of a competitive ELISA, showed an overall 27.7% (35 of 128) (95% confidence interval [CI] ± 7.7%) and 8.6% (13 of 142) (95% CI ± 4.6%) seroprevalence of N. caninum antibodies in sheep and goats, respectively. The difference in seroprevalence between sheep and goat populations was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The highest prevalence (37.4% ± 13.2%) was recorded in the tailless breed of sheep.; A. Nasir, M. Ashraf, M. S. Khan, A. Javeed, T. Yaqub, M. Avais, and M. P. Reichel

Systems biology of ovine intestinal parasite resistance: disease gene modules and biomarkers

Kadarmideen, H.; Watson-Haigh, N.; Andronicos, N.
Fonte: Royal Society of Chemistry Publicador: Royal Society of Chemistry
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
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This study reports on the molecular systems biology of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection and potential biomarkers for GIN resistance in sheep. Microarray gene expression data were obtained for 3 different tissues at 4 time points from sheep artificially challenged with two types of nematodes, Haemonchus contortus (HC) and Trichostrongylus colubriformis (TC). We employed an integrated systems biology approach, integrating 3 main methods: standard differential gene expression analyses, weighted gene co-expression network analyses (WGCNA) and quantitative genetic analyses of gene expression traits of key biomarkers. Using standard differential gene expression analyses we identified differentially expressed genes (DE) which responded differently in sheep challenged with HC compared to those challenged with TC. These interaction genes (e.g. MRPL51, SMEK2, CAT, MAPK1IP1 and SLC25A20A) were enriched in Wnt receptor signalling pathway (p = 0.0132) and positive regulation of NFκβ transcription factor activity (p = 0.00208). We report FCER1A, a gene encoding a high-affinity receptor for the Fc region of immunoglobulin E, which is linked to innate immunity to GIN in sheep. Using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) methods...

Occurrences of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in sheep from four districts of Tocantins state, Brazilian Legal Amazon Region

Guimaraes, Andresa; Raimundo, Juliana M.; Moraes, Larissa M. B.; Silva, Aline T.; Santos, Huarrisson A.; Pires, Marcos S.; Machado, Rosangela Z.; Baldani, Cristiane D.
Fonte: Revista Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira Publicador: Revista Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 110-114
ENG
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Toxoplasmosis and neosporosis have been recognized as economically important diseases with considerable impact on the livestock industry. Little is known concerning the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in sheep from Tocantins state, Brazil. Here, we investigated antibodies against these parasites and associated factors in 182 sheep from Araguaina, Santa Terezinha do Tocantins, Arguianopolis and Palmeiras do Tocantins districts, Tocantins. Sheep sera were assayed for T. gondii and N. caninum IgG antibodies by indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT), using cut-off point at a dilution of 1: 40 and 1: 25 respectively. The prevalence of seropositive animal for T. gondii was 13.74% and 13.74% for N. caninum. None of the characteristics studied including reproductive problems, presence of cats, presence of dogs and veterinary care (p>0.05) was associated with occurrence of T. gondii or N. caninum infection. Only breed was identified as associated factor for the occurrence of toxoplasmosis in sheep (p<0.05). The present study is the first report on serum occurrence of T. gondii and N. caninum in sheep from the state of Tocantins, Brazil.; Toxoplasmose e Neosporose são reconhecidas por doenças economicamente importantes com impacto considerável na indústria pecuária. Pouco se sabe sobre a ocorrência de Toxoplasma gondii e Neospora caninum em ovelhas do estado do Tocantins...

Occurrences of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in sheep from four districts of Tocantins state, Brazilian Legal Amazon Region

Guimarães,Andresa; Raimundo,Juliana M.; Moraes,Larissa M.B.; Silva,Aline T.; Santos,Huarrisson A.; Pires,Marcos S.; Machado,Rosangela Z.; Baldani,Cristiane D.
Fonte: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA) Publicador: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2015 EN
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373.1138%
Toxoplasmosis and neosporosis have been recognized as economically important diseases with considerable impact on the livestock industry. Little is known concerning the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in sheep from Tocantins state, Brazil. Here, we investigated antibodies against these parasites and associated factors in 182 sheep from Araguaína, Santa Terezinha do Tocantins, Arguianópolis and Palmeiras do Tocantins districts, Tocantins. Sheep sera were assayed for T. gondii and N. caninum IgG antibodies by indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT), using cut-off point at a dilution of 1:40 and 1:25 respectively. The prevalence of seropositive animal for T. gondii was 13.74% and 13.74% for N. caninum. None of the characteristics studied including reproductive problems, presence of cats, presence of dogs and veterinary care (p>0.05) was associated with occurrence of T. gondii or N. caninum infection. Only breed was identified as associated factor for the occurrence of toxoplasmosis in sheep (p<0.05). The present study is the first report on serum occurrence of T. gondii and N. caninum in sheep from the state of Tocantins, Brazil.

A pilot study for control of hyperendemic Cystic hydatid disease in China

Zhang, Wenbao; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Yimit, Turhong; Shi, Baoxin; Aili, Hasyeti; Tulson, Gulnor; You, Hong; Li, Jun; Gray, Darren J.; McManus, Donald P.; Wang, Jincheng
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 7 pages
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BACKGROUND Cystic hydatid disease (CHD) is a global parasitic zoonosis caused by the dog tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus. The disease is hyperendemic in western China because of poor economic development; limited community knowledge of CHD; widespread, small-scale household animal production; home killing of livestock; and the feeding of dogs with uncooked offal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS A control program focusing on monthly praziquantel (PZQ) treatment of all registered dogs and culling unwanted and stray dogs has been designed to control CHD in hyperendemic areas in China. A pilot field control project in two counties (Hutubi and Wensu) in Xinjiang, China showed that after 4 years of treatment, the prevalence of dogs with E. granulosus was reduced from 14.7% and 18.6%, respectively, to 0%, and this caused a 90%-100% decrease of CHD in sheep born after commencement of the control program. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE The strategy aimed at preventing eggs being released from dogs into the environment by treating animals before adult tapeworms are patent can decrease E. granulosus transmission and considerably reduce hyperendemic CHD. Monthly treatment of dogs with PZQ and culling unwanted and stray dogs have been shown to be an efficient...

Efficacy of homeopathic treatment against natural infection of sheep by gastrointestinal nematodes.

da Rocha, Raquel A; Pacheco, Rodrigo Dias L; Amarante, Alessandro F T
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 23-27
ENG
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The efficacy of the homeopathic treatment with the Fator Vermes, administered according to the manufacturer's recommendations, was evaluated against gastrointestinal nematodes infections in sheep. The experiment was divided into two phases: in the first phase (January/06/2004 to April/30/2004), the animals of the treated (n=10) and control (n=10) groups were treated individually with conventional anthelmintics to avoid deaths. In the second phase (April/30/2004 to July/06/2004), the sheep from the group that received the Fator Vermes were treated as they had been in the previous phase, while the control group animals were treated with conventional anthelmintics at 14 day intervals. In the first phase of the experiment, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between group means regarding egg counts in feces (EPG), weight gain, or packed cell volume (PCV). Meanwhile, in the second phase, the control group sheep had a significantly higher weight gain, higher PCV values, and lower EPG counts. Infective larvae of Haemonchus spp., Trichostrongylus spp., Cooperia spp., and Oesophagostomum spp. were identified in the fecal cultures. After six months of daily treatment with the Fator Vermes, it was not possible to substantiate the product's benefits in both sheep health and productivity or in the prophylaxis of gastrointestinal nematode infections.

Clinical Examination Protocol to Detect Atypical and Classical Scrapie in Sheep

Konold, Timm; Phelan, Laura
Fonte: MyJove Corporation Publicador: MyJove Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/01/2014 EN
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The diagnosis of scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSEs) of sheep and goats, is currently based on the detection of disease-associated prion protein by post mortem tests. Unless a random sample of the sheep or goat population is actively monitored for scrapie, identification of scrapie cases relies on the reporting of clinical suspects, which is dependent on the individual's familiarization with the disease and ability to recognize clinical signs associated with scrapie. Scrapie may not be considered in the differential diagnosis of neurological diseases in small ruminants, particularly in countries with low scrapie prevalence, or not recognized if it presents as nonpruritic form like atypical scrapie. To aid in the identification of clinical suspects, a short examination protocol is presented to assess the display of specific clinical signs associated with pruritic and nonpruritic forms of TSEs in sheep, which could also be applied to goats. This includes assessment of behavior, vision (by testing of the menace response), pruritus (by testing the response to scratching), and movement (with and without blindfolding). This may lead to a more detailed neurologic examination of reporting animals as scrapie suspects. It could also be used in experimental TSE studies of sheep or goats to evaluate disease progression or to identify clinical end-point.

Improving the livelihoods of wool producers in a sustainable manner by optimizing the woolled sheep production systems within the communal farming area of the Eastern Cape. "A vision that is future directed"

De Beer,L.; Terblanché,S. E.
Fonte: South African Journal of Agricultural Extension Publicador: South African Journal of Agricultural Extension
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 EN
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The main objective of the NWGA is to improve both the quality and quantity of wool produced in the communal wool sheep farming areas of South Africa. Shearing sheds in the communal area were divided into three performance categories namely top, average and bottom sheds. This finding has led to two questions: Why and where do they differ? Can something be done to improve the performance of the sheds? A total of five (5) top, five (5) average and seven (7) bottom sheds were selected to collect data from 179 respondents. The socio-economic data is always important to indicate clearly who the respondents are. The average age of respondents is 59.46 and 64% male and 36% females. There are more members in the top sheds than in the other two categories. Although a large number of respondents can read and write, the majority do have only a qualification at the lower level. A total of 83% of the respondents do have some years of experience in sheep farming. Respondents in the top shed have significantly more sheep, cattle and goats than respondents in the average and bottom sheds. Significantly more farmers attend the top shed meetings than farmer members in the other two categories. A total of 39% respondents indicated that good sheep health control will lead to higher wool production and the most common diseases as perceived by respondents are Sheep scab...