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Polymorphisms of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and DNA repair genes and outcome in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

SILVEIRA, Vanessa da Silva; CANALLE, Renata; SCRIDELI, Carlos Alberto; QUEIROZ, Rosane Gomes de Paula; BETTIOL, Heloisa; VALERA, Elvis Terci; TONE, Luiz Gonzaga
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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The interindividual variation in the activity of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and DNA repair genes could modify an individual`s risk of recurrent malignancy and response to therapy. We investigated whether ALL outcome was related to polymorphisms in genes CYP2D6. MPO, EPHX1, NQO1, TS, XPD and XRCC1 in 95 consecutive ALL children by PCR or PCR-FRLP techniques. Polymorphisms in genes NQO1 and TS were associated with a significantly slow response to induction chemotherapy and NQO1 was also associated with a lower five-year event-free survival. This study suggests that polymorphisms of NQO1 and TS could be important for patient response to induction therapy and for treatment outcome. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq)[150163/2004-5]; Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP)[03/02527-4]

MicroRNA expression is differentially altered by xenobiotic drugs in different human cell lines

RODRIGUES, Alice C.; LI, Xin; RADECKI, Laura; PAN, Yu-Zhuo; WINTER, Jerrold C.; HUANG, Min; YU, Ai-Ming
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Several noncoding microRNAs (miR or miRNA) have been shown to regulate the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Xenobiotic drug-induced changes in enzyme and transporter expression may be associated with the alteration of miRNA expression. Therefore, this study investigated the impact of 19 xenobiotic drugs (e. g. dexamethasone, vinblastine, bilobalide and cocaine) on the expression of ten miRNAs (miR-18a, -27a, -27b, -124a, -148a, -324-3p, -328, -451, -519c and -1291) in MCF-7, Caco-2, SH-SY5Y and BE(2)-M17 cell systems. The data revealed that miRNAs were differentially expressed in human cell lines and the change in miRNA expression was dependent on the drug, as well as the type of cells investigated. Notably, treatment with bilobalide led to a 10-fold increase of miR-27a and a 2-fold decrease of miR-148a in Caco-2 cells, but no change of miR-27a and a 2-fold increase of miR-148a in MCF-7 cells. Neuronal miR-124a was generally down-regulated by psychoactive drugs (e. g. cocaine, methadone and fluoxetine) in BE(2)-M17 and SH-SY5Y cells. Dexamethasone and vinblastine, inducers of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters, suppressed the expression of miR-27b, -148a and -451 that down-regulate the enzymes and transporters. These findings should provide increased understanding of the altered gene expression underlying drug disposition...

Inhibition of transcription factor IIIA-DNA interactions by xenobiotic metal ions.

Hanas, J S; Gunn, C G
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/03/1996 EN
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Transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA), a cysteine-rich regulatory protein, is the prototype for the largest known superfamily of eukaryotic transcription factors. Members of the TFIIIA superfamily contain Cys2His2 zinc finger domains responsible for nucleic acid binding. Xenobiotic metal ions, which lack known biological function, were previously used as probes for the structure and function of steroid hormone receptors which contain Cys2Cys2 zinc finger domains. Structural alterations in cysteine-rich regulatory proteins by such ions in vivo might potentiate carcinogenesis and other disease processes. In the present study cadmium and other xenobiotic metal ions were used to probe the structure and function of TFIIIA. The specific interaction of TFIIIA with the internal control region (ICR) of the 5S RNA gene, as assayed by DNase I protection, was inhibited by Cd2+ ion concentrations of > or = 0.1 microM. Aluminum ions were also found to inhibit the TFIIIA-5S RNA gene interaction, albeit at higher concentrations (> or = 5 microM). Inhibition by either metal ion was not readily reversible. Other xenobiotic metal ions, such as mercury or cesium, were not found to be inhibitory under these conditions. None of these ions at the concentrations used in this study affected the ability of DNase I to digest DNA or restriction enzymes to specifically cleave DNA. Preincubation of TFIIIA bound to 5S RNA with either Cd2+ or Al3+ resulted in subsequent DNA binding upon dilution and RNA removal...

Characterization of xenobiotic responsive elements upstream from the drug-metabolizing cytochrome P-450c gene: a similarity to glucocorticoid regulatory elements.

Fujisawa-Sehara, A; Sogawa, K; Yamane, M; Fujii-Kuriyama, Y
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/05/1987 EN
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The DNA element governing the inducible expression of drug-metabolizing P-450c gene by xenobiotic treatments was investigated by gene transfer methods. A variety of dissected fragments from -844 to -1140bp region which was essential for the inducibility of P-450c gene were placed on the heterologous SV40 promoter for testing the inducibility. Mapping studies in combination with gel retardation assay defined the presence of the two xenobiotic responsive elements (XRE, XRE1, -1007 - -1021bp; XRE2, -1088 - -1092bp) composed of about 15 nucleotides which expressed the enhancer activity in response to xenobiotic inducers. The two XREs share 10 nucleotides in common out of 15 as expressed in the sequence CG/CTG/CC/TTG/CTCACGCT/AA and are arranged in the inverse orientation. They are different from DREs (drug responsive element) proposed previously (Sogawa, K. et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 83, 8044-8048 (1986] and expressed a strong enhancer activity in response to 3-methylcholanthrene. The XRE shows a significant homology with glucocorticoid regulatory elements and apparently needs normal functions of a putative xenobiotic receptor for the inducible enhancer activity.

Dioxin receptor and C/EBP regulate the function of the glutathione S-transferase Ya gene xenobiotic response element.

Pimental, R A; Liang, B; Yee, G K; Wilhelmsson, A; Poellinger, L; Paulson, K E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1993 EN
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The rat glutathione S-transferase Ya gene xenobiotic response element (XRE) has both constitutive and xenobiotic-inducible activity. We present evidence that the XRE is regulated by both the constitutive C/EBP transcription factor and the xenobiotic-activated dioxin receptor. A ligand-activated XRE-binding protein was shown to be dioxin receptor by specific antibody immunodepletion and binding of highly purified receptor. Identification of C/EBP alpha as the constitutive binding protein was demonstrated by competition with a C/EBP binding site, protein-DNA cross-linking to determine the molecular weight of the constitutive protein(s), specific antibody immunodepletion, and binding of purified bacterially expressed C/EBP alpha. Mutational analysis of the XRE revealed that the constitutive factor (C/EBP alpha) shares a nearly identical overlapping binding site with the dioxin receptor. In functional testing of the putative C/EBP-XRE interaction, cotransfected C/EBP alpha activated an XRE test promoter in the non-xenobiotic-responsive HeLa cell line. Unexpectedly, cotransfected C/EBP alpha had no effect on basal activity but significantly increased the xenobiotic response of the XRE test promoter in the xenobiotic-responsive, C/EBP-positive HepG2 cell line. Furthermore...

Molecular mechanisms of genetic adaptation to xenobiotic compounds.

van der Meer, J R; de Vos, W M; Harayama, S; Zehnder, A J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1992 EN
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268.09309%
Microorganisms in the environment can often adapt to use xenobiotic chemicals as novel growth and energy substrates. Specialized enzyme systems and metabolic pathways for the degradation of man-made compounds such as chlorobiphenyls and chlorobenzenes have been found in microorganisms isolated from geographically separated areas of the world. The genetic characterization of an increasing number of aerobic pathways for degradation of (substituted) aromatic compounds in different bacteria has made it possible to compare the similarities in genetic organization and in sequence which exist between genes and proteins of these specialized catabolic routes and more common pathways. These data suggest that discrete modules containing clusters of genes have been combined in different ways in the various catabolic pathways. Sequence information further suggests divergence of catabolic genes coding for specialized enzymes in the degradation of xenobiotic chemicals. An important question will be to find whether these specialized enzymes evolved from more common isozymes only after the introduction of xenobiotic chemicals into the environment. Evidence is presented that a range of genetic mechanisms, such as gene transfer, mutational drift, and genetic recombination and transposition...

The acylation of proteins by xenobiotic amphipathic carboxylic acids in cultured rat hepatocytes.

Hertz, R; Bar-Tana, J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/08/1988 EN
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Three xenobiotic amphipathic carboxylates, namely MEDICA 16, nafenopin and bezafibrate, which differ remarkably in their hydrophobic backbones, were found to acylate membrane and cytosolic liver proteins in cultured rat hepatocytes. The acylation patterns observed were time- and dose-dependent, and the acylated residue consisted of the original xenobiotic. The acylation patterns generated by the three xenobiotic carboxylates included common proteins which were acylated by the three xenobiotics (e.g. proteins of 32, 52, 56 and 72 kDa) as well as unique proteins which were specifically acylated by the respective xenobiotics. The acylation of liver proteins by either MEDICA 16 or nafenopin remained unaffected under conditions where protein synthesis was completely inhibited by cycloheximide. Protein acylation thus offers a common mode of action of xenobiotic amphipathic carboxylates, which may, however, result in diverse xenobiotyl-protein adducts. The xenobiotyl-acylated proteins might be involved in triggering some of the biological effects exerted by xenobiotic amphipathic carboxylates employed as hypolipidaemic effectors, peroxisomal proliferators or preadipocyte convertors.

Xenobiotic- and Vitamin D-responsive Induction of the Steroid/bile acid-sulfotransferase Sult2A1 in Young and Old Mice: The role of a Gene Enhancer in the Liver Chromatin

Seo, Young-Kyo; Chung, Yoon-Tae; Kim, Soyoung; Echchgadda, Ibtissam; Song, Chung S; Chatterjee, Bandana
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The xenobiotic-activated nuclear receptors PXR (pregnane X receptor) and CAR (constitutive androstane receptor) and the vitamin D3-activated nuclear receptor VDR regulate steroid and xenobiotic metabolism by inducing the phase I cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, phase II conjugating transferases, and the phase III transporters, which mediate the efflux of water-soluble lipid metabolites from cells. Metabolic stress due to the deviant expression of steroid- and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes is known to have severe health consequences including accelerated aging, and increased expression of these enzymes is associated with extended longevity (Gachon et al, 2006; McElwee et al, 2004). Information on the similarities and dissimilarities in drug metabolism between the young and old, as may be uncovered by studying aging regulation of the genes relevant to steroid and xenobiotic metabolism, is likely to have clinical significance. In this report, we examined the VDR- and PXR-mediated gene induction of the phase II sulfotransferase Sult2A1 in the livers of 4-month and 20-month old mice. Sult2A1 converts bile acids, steroids and a number of drugs to the corresponding sulfated metabolites, which are readily eliminated from the body due to increased water solubility. In RT-PCR assay...

The steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR), beyond xenobiotic metabolism

Zhou, Changcheng; Verma, Suman; Blumberg, Bruce
Fonte: The Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas Publicador: The Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/01/2009 EN
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The steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) (also known as pregnane X receptor or PXR) is a nuclear hormone receptor activated by a diverse array of endogenous hormones, dietary steroids, pharmaceutical agents, and xenobiotic compounds. SXR has an enlarged, flexible, hydrophobic ligand binding domain (LBD) which is remarkably divergent across mammalian species and SXR exhibits considerable differences in its pharmacology among mammals. The broad response profile of SXR has led to the development of "the steroid and xenobiotic sensor hypothesis". SXR has been established as a xenobiotic sensor that coordinately regulates xenobiotic clearance in the liver and intestine via induction of genes involved in drug and xenobiotic metabolism. In the past few years, research has revealed new and mostly unsuspected roles for SXR in modulating inflammation, bone homeostasis, vitamin D metabolism, lipid homeostasis, energy homeostasis and cancer. The identification of SXR as a xenobiotic sensor has provided an important tool for studying new mechanisms through which diet, chemical exposure, and environment ultimately impact health and disease. The discovery and pharmacological development of new PXR modulators might represent an interesting and innovative therapeutic approach to combat various diseases.

A Single Amino Acid Controls the Functional Switch of Human Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) 1 to the Xenobiotic-Sensitive Splicing Variant CAR3

Chen, Tao; Tompkins, Leslie M.; Li, Linhao; Li, Haishan; Kim, Gregory; Zheng, Yuxin; Wang, Hongbing
Fonte: The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Publicador: The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2010 EN
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The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is constitutively activated in immortalized cell lines independent of xenobiotic stimuli. This feature of CAR has limited its use as a sensor for xenobiotic-induced expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Recent reports, however, reveal that a splicing variant of human CAR (hCAR3), which contains an insertion of five amino acids (APYLT), exhibits low basal but xenobiotic-inducible activities in cell-based reporter assays. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanisms of this functional shift are not well understood. We have now generated chimeric constructs containing various residues of the five amino acids of hCAR3 and examined their response to typical hCAR activators. Our results showed that the retention of alanine (hCAR1+A) alone is sufficient to confer the constitutively activated hCAR1 to the xenobiotic-sensitive hCAR3. It is noteworthy that hCAR1+A was significantly activated by a series of known hCAR activators, and displayed activation superior to that of hCAR3. Moreover, intracellular localization assays revealed that hCAR1+A exhibits nuclear accumulation upon 6-(4-chlorophenyl) imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazole-5-carbaldehyde-O-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl) oxime (CITCO) treatment in COS1 cells, which differs from the spontaneous nuclear distribution of hCAR1 and the nontranslocatable hCAR3. Mammalian two-hybrid and glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays further demonstrated that hCAR1+A interacts with the coactivator SRC-1 and GRIP-1 at low level before activation...

Alterations in xenobiotic metabolism in the long-lived Little mice

Amador-Noguez, Daniel; Dean, Adam; Huang, Wendong; Setchell, Kenneth; Moore, David; Darlington, Gretchen
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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274.50186%
Our previous microarray expression analysis of the long-lived Little mice (Ghrhrlit/lit) showed a concerted up-regulation of xenobiotic detoxification genes. Here, we show that this up-regulation is associated with a potent increase in resistance against the adverse effects of a variety of xenobiotics, including the hepatotoxins acetaminophen and bromobenzene and the paralyzing agent zoxazolamine. The classic xenobiotic receptors Car (Constitutive Androstane Receptor) and Pxr (Pregnane × Receptor) are considered key regulators of xenobiotic metabolism. Using double and triple knockout/mutant mouse models we found, however, that Car and Pxr are not required for the up-regulation of xenobiotic genes in Little mice. Our results suggest instead that bile acids and the primary bile acid receptor Fxr (farnesoid × receptor) are likely mediators of the up-regulation of xenobiotic detoxification genes in Little mice. Bile acid levels are considerably elevated in the bile, serum, and liver of Little mice. We found that treatment of wild-type animals with cholic acid, one of the major bile acids elevated in Little mice, mimics in large part the up-regulation of xenobiotic detoxification genes observed in Little mice. Additionally, the loss of Fxr had a major effect on the expression of the xenobiotic detoxification genes up-regulated in Little mice. A large fraction of these genes lost or decreased their high expression levels in double mutant mice for Fxr and Ghrhr. The alterations in xenobiotic metabolism in Little mice constitute a form of increased stress resistance and may contribute to the extended longevity of these mice.

A Functional Cross-Talk between Liver X Receptor-α and Constitutive Androstane Receptor Links Lipogenesis and Xenobiotic ResponsesS⃞

Zhai, Yonggong; Wada, Tara; Zhang, Bin; Khadem, Shaheen; Ren, Songrong; Kuruba, Ramalinga; Li, Song; Xie, Wen
Fonte: The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Publicador: The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2010 EN
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The liver X receptor (LXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are two nuclear receptors postulated to have distinct functions. LXR is a sterol sensor that promotes lipogenesis, whereas CAR is a xenosensor that controls xenobiotic responses. Here, we show that LXRα and CAR are functionally related in vivo. Loss of CAR increased the expression of lipogenic LXR target genes, leading to increased hepatic triglyceride accumulation, whereas activation of CAR inhibited the expression of LXR target genes and LXR ligand-induced lipogenesis. On the other hand, a combined loss of LXR α and β increased the basal expression of xenobiotic CAR target genes, whereas activation of LXR inhibited the expression of CAR target genes and sensitized mice to xenobiotic toxicants. The mutual suppression between LXRα and CAR was also observed in cell culture and reporter gene assays. LXRα, like CAR, exhibited constitutive activity in the absence of an exogenously added ligand by recruiting nuclear receptor coactivators. Interestingly, although CAR competed with LXRα for coactivators...

Xenobiotic Metabolism, Disposition, and Regulation by Receptors: From Biochemical Phenomenon to Predictors of Major Toxicities

Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Vanden Heuvel, John P.; Perdew, Gary H.; Peters, Jeffrey M.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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To commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Society of Toxicology, this special edition article reviews the history and current scope of xenobiotic metabolism and transport, with special emphasis on the discoveries and impact of selected “xenobiotic receptors.” This overall research realm has witnessed dynamic development in the past 50 years, and several of the key milestone events that mark the impressive progress in these areas of toxicological sciences are highlighted. From the initial observations regarding aspects of drug metabolism dating from the mid- to late 1800’s, the area of biotransformation research witnessed seminal discoveries in the mid-1900’s and onward that are remarkable in retrospect, including the discovery and characterization of the phase I monooxygenases, the cytochrome P450s. Further research uncovered many aspects of the biochemistry of xenobiotic metabolism, expanding to phase II conjugation and phase III xenobiotic transport. This led to hallmark developments involving integration of genomic technologies to elucidate the basis for interindividual differences in response to xenobiotic exposures and discovery of nuclear and soluble receptor families that selectively “sense” the chemical milieu of the mammalian cell and orchestrate compensatory changes in gene expression programming to accommodate complex xenobiotic exposures. This review will briefly summarize these developments and investigate the expanding roles of xenobiotic receptor biology in the underlying basis of toxicological response to chemical agents.

Triclocarban Mediates Induction of Xenobiotic Metabolism through Activation of the Constitutive Androstane Receptor and the Estrogen Receptor Alpha

Yueh, Mei-Fei; Li, Tao; Evans, Ronald M.; Hammock, Bruce; Tukey, Robert H.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/06/2012 EN
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Triclocarban (3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilide, TCC) is used as a broad-based antimicrobial agent that is commonly added to personal hygiene products. Because of its extensive use in the health care industry and resistance to degradation in sewage treatment processes, TCC has become a significant waste product that is found in numerous environmental compartments where humans and wildlife can be exposed. While TCC has been linked to a range of health and environmental effects, few studies have been conducted linking exposure to TCC and induction of xenobiotic metabolism through regulation by environmental sensors such as the nuclear xenobiotic receptors (XenoRs). To identify the ability of TCC to activate xenobiotic sensors, we monitored XenoR activities in response to TCC treatment using luciferase-based reporter assays. Among the XenoRs in the reporter screening assay, TCC promotes both constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) activities. TCC treatment to hUGT1 mice resulted in induction of the UGT1A genes in liver. This induction was dependent upon the constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR) because no induction occurred in hUGT1Car−/− mice. Induction of the UGT1A genes by TCC corresponded with induction of Cyp2b10...

Modulation of Xenobiotic Receptors by Steroids

Banerjee, Monimoy; Robbins, Delira; Chen, Taosheng
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/06/2013 EN
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Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate the expression of their target genes. NRs play important roles in many human diseases, including metabolic diseases and cancer, and are therefore a key class of therapeutic targets. Steroids play important roles in regulating nuclear receptors; in addition to being ligands of steroid receptors, steroids (and their metabolites) also regulate other NRs, such as the pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor (termed xenobiotic receptors), which participate in steroid metabolism. Xenobiotic receptors have promiscuous ligand-binding properties, and their structurally diverse ligands include steroids and their metabolites. Therefore, steroids, their metabolism and metabolites, xenobiotic receptors, steroid receptors, and the respective signaling pathways they regulate have functional interactions. This review discusses these functional interactions and their implications for activities mediated by steroid receptors and xenobiotic receptors, focusing on steroids that modulate pathways involving the pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor. The emphasis of the review is on structure-function studies of xenobiotic receptors bound to steroid ligands.

Farnesoid X receptor directly regulates xenobiotic detoxification genes in the long-lived Little mice

Jiang, Yanjun; Jin, Jingling; Iakova, Polina; Hernandez, Julio Cesar; Jawanmardi, Nicole; Sullivan, Emily; Guo, Grace L.; Timchenko, Nikolai A.; Darlington, Gretchen J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Activation of xenobiotic metabolism pathways has been linked to lifespan extension in different models of aging. However, the mechanisms underlying activation of xenobiotic genes remain largely unknown. Here we showed that although FXR mRNA levels do not change significantly, FXR (farnesoid X receptor, Nr1h4) protein levels are elevated in the livers of the long-lived Little mice, leading to increased DNA binding activity of FXR. Hepatic FXR expression is sex-dependent in wild-type mice but not in Little mice, implying that up-regulation of FXR might be dependent on the reduction of growth hormone in Little mice. Growth hormone treatment decreased hepatic expression of FXR and xenobiotic genes Abcb1a, Fmo3 and Gsta2 in both wild-type and Little mice, suggesting an association between FXR and xenobiotic gene expression. We found that Abcb1a is transactivated by FXR via direct binding of FXR/retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) heterodimer to a response element at the proximal promoter. FXR also positively controls Fmo3 and Gsta2 expression through direct interaction with the response elements in these genes. Our study demonstrates that xenobiotic genes are direct transcriptional targets of FXR and suggests that FXR signaling may play a critical role in the lifespan extension observed in Little mice.

LC-MS-based Metabolomics of Xenobiotic-induced Toxicities

Chen, Chi; Kim, Sangyub
Fonte: Research Network of Computational and Structural Biotechnology (RNCSB) Organization Publicador: Research Network of Computational and Structural Biotechnology (RNCSB) Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/03/2013 EN
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Xenobiotic exposure, especially high-dose or repeated exposure of xenobiotics, can elicit detrimental effects on biological systems through diverse mechanisms. Changes in metabolic systems, including formation of reactive metabolites and disruption of endogenous metabolism, are not only the common consequences of toxic xenobiotic exposure, but in many cases are the major causes behind development of xenobiotic-induced toxicities (XIT). Therefore, examining the metabolic events associated with XIT generates mechanistic insights into the initiation and progression of XIT, and provides guidance for prevention and treatment. Traditional bioanalytical platforms that target only a few suspected metabolites are capable of validating the expected outcomes of xenobiotic exposure. However, these approaches lack the capacity to define global changes and to identify unexpected events in the metabolic system. Recent developments in high-throughput metabolomics have dramatically expanded the scope and potential of metabolite analysis. Among all analytical techniques adopted for metabolomics, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) has been most widely used for metabolomic investigations of XIT due to its versatility and sensitivity in metabolite analysis. In this review...

Retinoid-xenobiotic interactions: the Ying and the Yang

Shmarakov, Igor O.
Fonte: AME Publishing Company Publicador: AME Publishing Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2015 EN
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The literature provides compelling evidence pointing to tight metabolic interactions between retinoids and xenobiotics. These are extensive and important for understanding xenobiotic actions in the body. Within the body, retinoids affect xenobiotic metabolism and actions and conversely, xenobiotics affect retinoid metabolism and actions. This article summarizes data that establish the importance of retinoid-dependent metabolic pathways for sustaining the body’s responses to xenobiotic exposure, including the roles of all-trans- and 9-cis-retinoic acid for protecting mammals from harmful xenobiotic effects and for ensuring xenobiotic elimination from the body. This review will also consider molecular mechanisms underlying xenobiotic toxicity focusing on how this may contribute to retinoid deficiency and disruption of normal retinoid homeostasis. Special attention is paid to xenobiotic molecular targets (nuclear receptors, regulatory proteins, enzymes, and transporters) which affect retinoid metabolism and signaling.

The interference of pharmaceuticals with endogenous and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in carp liver: an in-vitro study

Thibaut, Rémi; Schnell, Sabine; Porte Visa, Cinta
Fonte: American Chemical Society Publicador: American Chemical Society
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 162 bytes; application/msword
ENG
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7 pages, 2 figures.-- PMID: 16955921 [PubMed].-- Printed version published Aug 15, 2006.; The interactions of fibrate (clofibrate, fenofibrate, bezafibrate, gemfibrozil), antiinflammatory (ibuprofen, diclofenac, naproxen, ketoprofen), and anti-depressive (fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine) drugs with CYP catalyzed pathways (CYP1A, CYP3A-, CYP2K-, and CYP2M-like) and Phase II activities (UDP-glucuronosyltransferases and sulfotransferases), involved in both xenobiotic and endogenous metabolism in fish, were investigated in-vitro by incubating carp liver subcellular fractions in the presence of the substrate and the selected drug. Antidepressive drugs were strong inhibitors of CYP1A (92-94% inhibition), CYP3A-like (69-80% inhibition), and CYP2Klike (36-69% inhibition) catalyzed activities, while antiinflammatory drugs were potent CYP2M-like inhibitors (32-74% inhibition). Among the lipid regulators, gemfibrozil strongly inhibited CYP2M-catalyzed activity (91% inhibition) and other CYP isoforms (CYP1A and CYP3A-like). Additionally, glucuronidation of naphthol and testosterone were targeted by antiinflammatory drugs, and to a lesser extent, by fibrate drugs (48-78% inhibition). No significant alteration on sulfotransferase activities was observed...

Molecular Similarity and Xenobiotic Metabolism

Adams, Samuel E.
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Unilever Centre for Molecular Science Informatics; Department of Chemistry Publicador: University of Cambridge; Unilever Centre for Molecular Science Informatics; Department of Chemistry
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
EN
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MetaPrint2D, a new software tool implementing a data-mining approach for predicting sites of xenobiotic metabolism has been developed. The algorithm is based on a statistical analysis of the occurrences of atom centred circular fingerprints in both substrates and metabolites. This approach has undergone extensive evaluation and been shown to be of comparable accuracy to current best-in-class tools, but is able to make much faster predictions, for the first time enabling chemists to explore the effects of structural modifications on a compound?s metabolism in a highly responsive and interactive manner.; MetaPrint2D is able to assign a confidence score to the predictions it generates, based on the availability of relevant data and the degree to which a compound is modelled by the algorithm.; In the course of the evaluation of MetaPrint2D a novel metric for assessing the performance of site of metabolism predictions has been introduced. This overcomes the bias introduced by molecule size and the number of sites of metabolism inherent to the most commonly reported metrics used to evaluate site of metabolism predictions.; This data mining approach to site of metabolism prediction has been augmented by a set of reaction type definitions to produce MetaPrint2D-React...