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Infectious diseases in paediatric pathology: experience from a developing country

PERES, Luiz Cesar; SAGGIORO, Fabiano Pinto; DIAS JR., Leonidas Braga; ALVES, Vena Ncio Avancini Ferreira; BRASIL, Roosecelis Araujo; LUIZ, Veridiana Ester Dias De Barros; NEDER, Luciano; ROSMAN, Fernando Colonna; FLEURY, Raul Negrao; URA, Somei; ORSI, Ana
Fonte: TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD Publicador: TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Infectious and parasitic diseases have always challenged man. Although many of them are typically seen in some areas of the world and can be adequately managed by just improving socioeconomic status and sanitary conditions, they are still quite prevalent and may sometimes be seen outside their original geographical areas. Human migration due to different reasons, tourism, blood transfusion and solid organ transplantation has created new concerns for health professionals all over the world. If not for diagnostic purposes, at least these tropical and infectious diseases should be largely known because their epidemiology, pathogenesis, host/parasite interaction, inflammatory and reparative responses are quite interesting and teach us about human biology. Curiosity is inherent to pathology practice and so we are compelled to look for things other than tumours or degenerative diseases. This review focuses on infectious and parasitic diseases found in a developing country and brings up-to-date information on diseases caused by viruses (dengue, yellow fever), bacteria (typhoid fever, leprosy), parasites (Chagas` disease, cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, amoebiasis, Capillaria hepatica, schistosomiasis, cysticercosis) and caused by fungi (paracoccidioidomycosis...

Comparative study of bacterial infection prevalence between cirrhotic patients with and without upper gastrointestinal bleeding

Almeida,Delvone; Lopes,Antônio A; Santos-Jesus,Rogerio; Paes,Igelmar; Bittencourt,Helito; Paraná,Raymundo
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2001 EN
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Bacterial infection is a frequent complication in patients with chronic liver disease, mainly during the advanced stages. There is evidence that the main factors that contribute to a predisposition to infection in cirrhotic patients are related to hepatic failure with consequent immunodeficiency. Invasive procedures (diagnostic or therapeutic) can predispose to bacterial infections, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB) is considered a potentially important risk factor. A group of cirrhotic patients (child B and C Pugh groups ) were evaluated retrospectively by chart reviews regarding the prevalence of bacterial infection during hospitalization to determine whether UGB was a risk factor. An infection was considered present if a specific organ system was identified or if fever (>38ºC) persisted for more than 24 hours with associated leukocytosis. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis was based on classical criteria. Eighty-nine patients were evaluated. Fourty-six patients presented with UGB, and 43 patients had no UGB (control). There were infections recorded in 25/46 (54%) patients with UGB, and 15/43 (35%) in those without UGB (p=0.065). The ratio of the number of infections/admitted patients, was significantly larger in the group with UGB (0.78 ± 0.89 vs. 0.39 ± 0.62; p=0.028) since patients had more than one infection. In the UGB group compared to non UGB group...

A six-year follow-up survey of sexually transmitted diseases in Brasilia, the capital of Brazil

Simões-Barbosa,Augusto; Feijó,Gilvânia Coutinho; Silva,Joaquim Xavier da; Leal,Isabel Irene Rama; Barbosa,Tânia Wanderley Paes
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2002 EN
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The notification of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) is a prime component of well-designed public health policy. However, peculiar aspects of STD must be taken into account for the correct management of surveillance activities. Here, we describe the distribution of the most common sexually transmitted diseases among patients attended by the gynecological clinics of the principal public hospitals of Brasilia and the Federal District, Brazilian capital, during six years. A total of 142,158 patients had their cervicovaginal samples collected for Papanicolaou preparations and eventual biopsies. Diagnosis was made according to cytological and histological alterations, distinguishing among vaginal infections, and pre-cancerous and cancerous cervical lesions. We also looked at the annual prevalence of the various types of infections and alterations. There was a high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and candidiasis, with suggestive changes over the years. Pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions increased 2.2 fold during the six years. A large proportion of the cases involved late stages of cervical cancer, indicating the necessity of prompt attendance of the population in a routine gynecological prevention program.

The clinical utility of induced sputum for the diagnosis of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia in HIV-infected patients: a prospective cross-sectional study

Silva,Rosemeri Maurici da; Teixeira,Paulo José Zimermann; Moreira,José da Silva
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2006 EN
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BACKGROUND: Bacterial pneumonias have been overcoming pneumocytosis in frequency. Controversy still remains about how to manage immunocompromised patients and those with lung diseases. Sputum analysis is a noninvasive and simple method, and when interpreted according to specific criteria it may help with diagnosis. We conducted a study to evaluate sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predicted values, and the accuracy of induced sputum (IS) for bacterial community-acquired pneumonia diagnosis in HIV-positive patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This cross sectional study evaluated a diagnostic procedure in a reference hospital for HIV patients in Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. From January 1, 2001 to September 30, 2002, 547 HIV-positive patients were analyzed and 54 inpatients with pulmonary infection were selected. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) were considered the gold standards. Gram stains and quantitative cultures of IS and BAL were obtained. The cut-offs for quantitative cultures were 10(6) CFU/mL for IS and 10(4) CFU/mL for BAL. RESULTS: The mean age was 35.7 years, 79.6% were males and 85.2% were caucasians. The mean lymphocyte count was 124.8/mm³. Bacterial pneumonia was diagnosed in 20 patients. The most prevalent bacteria was Streptococcus pneumoniae. Considering IS for the diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia...

Evaluation of reagent strips for ascitic fluid leukocyte determination: is it a possible alternative for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis rapid diagnosis?

Ribeiro,Tarsila C.R.; Kondo,Mario; Amaral,Ana Cristina C.; Parise,Edson Roberto; Bragagnolo Júnior,Maurício A.; Souza,Aécio Flávio Meirelles de
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2007 EN
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In order to evaluate the accuracy of a urine reagent dipstick (Multistix 10SG®) to determine ascitic fluid leukocyte count, we prospectively studied 106 cirrhotic patients from April 2003 to December 2004, in two different centers (Federal University of São Paulo - UNIFESP-EPM and Federal University of Juiz de Fora - HU-UFJF) for the rapid bedside diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. The mean age 54 ± 12 years, there was a predominance of males (eighty-two patients, 77%), and alcohol was the most frequent etiology (43%). Forty-four percent of patients were classified as Child B and fifty-one as Child C (51%). Abdominal paracentesis was performed both in outpatient and inpatient settings and the Multistix 10SG® was tested. Eleven cases of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis were identified by means of polymorphonuclear count. If we considered the positive Multistix 10SG® result of 3 or more, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were respectively 71%, 99%, 91% and 98%. With a positive reagent strip result taken as grade 2 (traces) or more, sensitivity was 86% and specificity was 96% with positive and negative predictive values of 60% and 99%, respectively. Diagnostic accuracy was 95%. We concluded that the use of a urine reagent dipstick (Multistix 10SG®) could be considered a quick...

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi plasmid pR ST98 enhances intracellular bacterial growth and S. typhi-induced macrophage cell death by suppressing autophagy

He,Peiyan; Wu,Shuyan; Chu,Yuanyuan; Yang,Yanru; Li,Yuanyuan; Huang,Rui
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2012 EN
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OBJECTIVES: Plasmid pR ST98 is a hybrid resistance-virulence plasmid isolated from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi). Previous studies demonstrated that pR ST98 could enhance the virulence of its host bacteria. However, the mechanism of pR ST98-increased bacterial virulence is still not fully elucidated. This study was designed to gain further insight into the roles of pR ST98 in host responses. METHODS: Human-derived macrophage-like cell line THP-1 was infected with wild-type (ST8), pR ST98-deletion (ST8-ΔpR ST98), and complemented (ST8-c-pR ST98) S. typhi strains. Macrophage autophagy was performed by extracting the membrane-unbound LC3-I protein from cells, followed by flow cytometric detection of the membrane-associated fraction of LC3-II. Intracellular bacterial growth was determined by colony-forming units (cfu) assay. Macrophage cell death was measured by flow cytometry after propidium iodide (PI) staining. Autophagy activator rapamycin (RAPA) was added to the medium 2 h before infection to investigate the effect of autophagy on intracellular bacterial growth and macrophage cell death after S. typhi infection. RESULTS: Plasmid pR ST98 suppressed autophagy in infected macrophages and enhanced intracellular bacterial growth and S. typhi-induced macrophage cell death. Pretreatment with RAPA effectively restricted intracellular bacterial growth of ST8 and ST8-c-pR ST98...

Prediction of bacterial meningitis based on cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis in children

Águeda,Sofia; Campos,Teresa; Maia,Ana
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2013 EN
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Children with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis are frequently treated with parenteral antibiotics, but only a few have bacterial meningitis. Although some clinical prediction rules, such as bacterial meningitis score, are of well-known value, the cerebrospinal fluid white blood cells count can be the initial available information. Our aim was to establish a cutoff point of cerebrospinal fluid white blood cell count that could distinguish bacterial from viral and aseptic meningitis. A retrospective study of children aged 29 days to 17 years who were admitted between January 1st and December 31th, 2009, with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis (white blood cell > 7 µL-1) was conducted. The cases of traumatic lumbar puncture and of antibiotic treatment before lumbar puncture were excluded. There were 295 patients with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis, 60.3% females, medium age 5.0 ± 4.3 years distributed as: 12.2% 1-3 months; 10.5% 3-12 months; 29.8% 12 months to 5 years; 47.5% >5 years. Thirty one children (10.5%) were diagnosed with bacterial meningitis, 156 (52.9%) viral meningitis and 108 (36.6%) aseptic meningitis. Bacterial meningitis was caused by Neisseria meningi tidis (48.4%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (32.3%), other Streptococcus species (9.7%)...

Prognostic indicators in bacterial meningitis: a case-control study

Mendizabal,Maria de Fátima Magalhães Acioly; Bezerra,Phelipe Cunha; Guedes,Diego Lins; Cabral,Diogo Buarque Cordeiro; Miranda-Filho,Demócrito de Barros
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2013 EN
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This was a case-control study to identify prognostic indicators of bacterial meningitis in a reference hospital in Pernambuco/Brazil. The data were collected from charts of 294 patients with bacterial meningitis between January 2000 and December 2004. Variables were grouped in biological, clinical, laboratory and etiologic agent/treatment. Variables selected in each step were grouped and adjusted for age. Two models were created: one containing clinical variables (clinical model) and other containing laboratory variables (laboratory model). In the clinical model the variables associated with death due to bacterial meningitis were dyspnea (p = 0.006), evidence of shock (p = 0.051), evidence of altered mental state (p = 0.000), absence of headache (p = 0.008), absence of vomiting (p = 0.052), and age >40 years old (p = 0.013). In the laboratory model, the variables associated with death due to bacterial meningitis were positive blood cultures (p = 0.073) and thrombocytopenia (p = 0.019). Identification of prognostic indicators soon after admission may allow early specific measures, like admission of patients with higher risk of death to Intensive Care Units.

Amikacin in Newborn Infants: Comparative Pharmacology with Kanamycin and Clinical Efficacy in 45 Neonates with Bacterial Diseases

Howard, Jorge B.; McCracken, George H.; Trujillo, Hugo; Mohs, Edgar
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1976 EN
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The pharmacokinetic properties of amikacin (BBK8) were similar to those of kanamycin in newborn infants. Peak serum concentrations of both drugs were in the range of 15 to 25 μg/ml with the exception of kanamycin in babies weighing greater than 2,000 g at birth where peak levels were 12.5 to 15 μg/ml. Volumes of distribution, plasma clearances, and serum half-life values were comparable for the two drugs. The clinical and bacteriological responses to amikacin therapy were assessed in 45 neonates with bacterial diseases. A case fatality rate of 26% was observed in infants with septicemia and/or meningitis, whereas no deaths occurred among 22 infants with urinary tract and mucocutaneous infections. Cultures from infected sites were sterile within 72 h of initiating amikacin therapy in 47% of the infants, continued positive for greater than 72 h in 31%, and were not reevaluated during therapy in 22%. The clinical response was judged to be satisfactory in 92% of the surviving infants. The efficacy of amikacin was comparable to that of kanamycin or gentamicin in neonatal bacterial diseases.

DISCUSSIONS OF PAPERS ON BACTERIAL DISEASES

Brachman, Philip S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1961 EN
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Traditional and Molecular Techniques for the Study of Emerging Bacterial Diseases: One Laboratory’s Perspective

Houpikian, Pierre; Raoult, Didier
Fonte: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Publicador: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2002 EN
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Identification of emerging bacterial pathogens generally results from a chain of events involving microscopy, serology, molecular tools, and culture. Because of the spectacular molecular techniques developed in the last decades, some authors think that these techniques will shortly supplant culture. The key steps that led to the discovery of emerging bacteria have been reviewed to determine the real contribution of each technique. Historically, microscopy has played a major role. Serology provided indirect evidence for causality. Isolation and culture were crucial, as all emerging bacteria have been grown on artificial media or cell lines or at least propagated in animals. With the use of broad-range polymerase chain reaction, some bacteria have been identified or detected in new clinical syndromes. Culture has irreplaceable advantages for studying emerging bacterial diseases, as it allows antigenic studies, antibiotic susceptibility testing, experimental models, and genetic studies to be carried out, and remains the ultimate goal of pathogen identification.

Photodynamic Therapy Can Induce a Protective Innate Immune Response against Murine Bacterial Arthritis via Neutrophil Accumulation

Tanaka, Masamitsu; Morimoto, Yuji; Kinoshita, Manabu; Yoshihara, Yasuo; Nemoto, Koichi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Seki, Suhji; Mroz, Pawel A.; Dai, Tianhong; Huang, Liyi; Hamblin, Michael
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Background: Local microbial infections induced by multiple-drug-resistant bacteria in the orthopedic field can be intractable, therefore development of new therapeutic modalities is needed. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising alternative modality to antibiotics for intractable microbial infections, and we recently reported that PDT has the potential to accumulate neutrophils into the infected site which leads to resolution of the infection. PDT for cancer has long been known to be able to stimulate the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Methodology/Principal Findings: In the present study, a murine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) arthritis model using bioluminescent MRSA and polystyrene microparticles was established, and both the therapeutic (Th-PDT) and preventive (Pre-PDT) effects of PDT using methylene blue as photosensitizer were examined. Although Th-PDT could not demonstrate direct bacterial killing, neutrophils were accumulated into the infectious joint space after PDT and MRSA arthritis was reduced. With the preconditioning Pre-PDT regimen, neutrophils were quickly accumulated into the joint immediately after bacterial inoculation and bacterial growth was suppressed and the establishment of infection was inhibited. Conclusions/Significance: This is the first demonstration of a protective innate immune response against a bacterial pathogen produced by PDT.

Lipid Body–Phagosome Interaction in Macrophages during Infectious Diseases: Host Defense or Pathogen Survival Strategy?

Melo, Rossana C. N.; Dvorak, Ann Marie
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Phagocytosis of invading microorganisms by specialized cells such as macrophages and neutrophils is a key component of the innate immune response. These cells capture and engulf pathogens and subsequently destroy them in intracellular vacuoles—the phagosomes. Pathogen phagocytosis and progression and maturation of pathogen-containing phagosomes, a crucial event to acquire microbicidal features, occurs in parallel with accentuated formation of lipid-rich organelles, termed lipid bodies (LBs), or lipid droplets. Experimental and clinical infections with different pathogens such as bacteria, parasites, and viruses induce LB accumulation in cells from the immune system. Within these cells, LBs synthesize and store inflammatory mediators and are considered structural markers of inflammation. In addition to LB accumulation, interaction of these organelles with pathogen-containing phagosomes has increasingly been recognized in response to infections and may have implications in the outcome or survival of the microorganism within host cells. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge on the LB-phagosome interaction within cells from the immune system, with emphasis on macrophages, and discuss the functional meaning of this event during infectious diseases.

Development of Fatal Intestinal Inflammation in MyD88 Deficient Mice Co-infected with Helminth and Bacterial Enteropathogens

Su, Libo; Qi, Yujuan; Zhang, Mei; Weng, Meiqian; Zhang, Xichen; Su, Chienwen; Shi, Hai Ning
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Infections with intestinal helminth and bacterial pathogens, such as enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, continue to be a major global health threat for children. To determine whether and how an intestinal helminth parasite, Heligomosomoides polygyrus, might impact the TLR signaling pathway during the response to a bacterial enteropathogen, MyD88 knockout and wild-type C57BL/6 mice were infected with H. polygyrus, the bacterial enteropathogen Citrobacter rodentium, or both. We found that MyD88 knockout mice co-infected with H. polygyrus and C. rodentium developed more severe intestinal inflammation and elevated mortality compared to the wild-type mice. The enhanced susceptibility to C. rodentium, intestinal injury and mortality of the co-infected MyD88 knockout mice were found to be associated with markedly reduced intestinal phagocyte recruitment, decreased expression of the chemoattractant KC, and a significant increase in bacterial translocation. Moreover, the increase in bacterial infection and disease severity were found to be correlated with a significant downregulation of antimicrobial peptide expression in the intestinal tissue in co-infected MyD88 knockout mice. Our results suggest that the MyD88 signaling pathway plays a critical role for host defense and survival during helminth and enteric bacterial co-infection.

Using data clustering as a method of estimating the risk of establishment of bacterial crop diseases

Watts, Michael John
Fonte: IAEES Publicador: IAEES
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011
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Previous work has investigated the use of data clustering of regional species assemblages to estimate the relative risk of establishment of insect crop pest species. This paper describes the use of these techniques to estimate the risk posed by bacterial crop plant diseases. Two widely-used clustering algorithms, the Kohonen Self-Organising Map and the k-means clustering algorithm, were investigated. It describes how a wider variety of SOM architectures than previously used were investigated, and how both of these algorithms reacted to the addition of small amounts of random ‘noise’ to the species assemblages. The results indicate that the k-means clustering algorithm is much more computationally efficient, produces better clusters as determined by an objective measure of cluster quality and is more resistant to noise in the data than equivalent Kohonen SOM. Therefore k-means is considered to be the better algorithm for this problem.; Michael J. Watts

Neurological diseases of ruminant livestock in Australia. III: bacterial and protozoal infections

Kessell, A.; Finnie, J.; Windsor, P.
Fonte: Australian Veterinary Assn Publicador: Australian Veterinary Assn
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
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Bacteria (including chlamydia) and protozoa can produce neurological disease in Australian ruminant livestock and the nature of the inflammatory and neuroparenchymal response is often suggestive of a particular aetiological agent. An overview of the clinicopathological features of infectious disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS) is followed by a discussion of important bacterial and protozoal infections in Australia. Each infectious disease is discussed in terms of classification and pathogenesis linked to clinical signs and gross and microscopic findings. The literature review is restricted to infectious conditions causing CNS disease in Australia. Sources include the Australian Veterinary Journal (over 50 years of articles), the quarterly newsletter of the National Animal Health Surveillance System and the Animal Health Surveillance Quarterly.; AE Kessell, JW Finnie and PA Windsor

Second Annual Meeting of the Invasive Bacterial Diseases Surveillance Network in Europe: meeting report

European Center for Disease Control and Prevention
Fonte: ECDC Publicador: ECDC
Tipo: Relatório
Publicado em /01/2011 ENG
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Paula Lavado é representante de Portugal neste projecto participando nas reuniões científicas e enviando os dados de Portugal; Second annual meeting of the invasive bacterial diseases surveillance network in Europe, Stockholm, 16–17 November 2010.; The invasive bacterial diseases (IBD) surveillance network is coordinated by the surveillance unit at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). During the meeting, held over 16–17 November 2010, an overview of general surveillance—including TESSy activities—was presented, ranging from a presentation on the ECDC programme and goals for the coming years to development of the new IBD metadataset in TESSy and the progress of laboratory surveillance activities in the EU.

Registration of 'CP 04-1566' Sugarcane

Comstock, Jack C. ( Author, Primary ); Glaz, Barry ( Author, Secondary ); Edmé, Serge J. ( Author, Secondary ); Davidson, R. Wayne ( Author, Secondary ); Gilbert, Robert A. ( Author, Secondary ); Glynn, Neil C. ( Author, Secondary ); Zhao, Duli ( Author,
Fonte: Crop Science Society of America; Crop Science Society of America ( Madison, WI USA ) Publicador: Crop Science Society of America; Crop Science Society of America ( Madison, WI USA )
Tipo: mixed material Formato: Journal Article
ENGLISH
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(Acquisition) Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Suzanne Stapleton.; (Publication Status) Published; NALT Terms: Agricultural Research Service, Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli, Puccinia melanocephala, Saccharum, Sugarcane mosaic virus, Sugarcane yellow leaf virus, Ustilago scitaminea, Xanthomonas albilineans, bacterial diseases of plants, canes, cold tolerance, cooperative research, crop yield, cultivars, disease resistance, genes, germplasm releases, growth retardation, hybrids, leaves, orange rust, organic soils, parents, plant breeding, sandy soils, smut diseases, sucrose, sugarcane, universities, Florida; (Preferred Citation) Journal of Plant Registrations, Vol. 7, No. 3

Immunogenetics and infectious diseases: special reference to the mayor histocompatibility complex

Alves,Crésio; Souza,Thaisa; Meyer,Isadora; Toralles,Maria Betânia P.; Brites,Carlos
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2006 EN
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Many studies have tried to identify genetic markers for infectious diseases, some of them have focused on human leukocyte antigens (HLA). The products of HLA genes interact with surface-specific receptors of T lymphocytes, resulting in activation of the host's immune response. Association of bacterial, viral, parasitic and fungal infections with the host's HLA has been widely investigated. The type and strength of this association differs among distinct populations, as well as among racial and/or ethnic groups. The new molecular methods for the identification of the HLA alleles, and the resulting new nomenclature, have contributed to a better understanding of this system. Unfortunately, this information has not been adequately transmitted to clinicians, which hampers the understanding of the association between the HLA system and diseases. We revised relevant studies on the association of HLA genes with infectious diseases, demonstrating their importance in the pathogenic mechanisms, through increased susceptibility or protection against infections and their complications.

GERBERA DISEASES IN THE STATE OF PARANÁ, BRAZIL; DOENÇAS EM CULTIVOS DE GÉRBERA NO ESTADO DO PARANÁ

FERRONATO, Marlene de Lurdes; UTFPR; LIMA NETO, Vismar da Costa; UFPR; TOMAZ, Roberto; SEAB
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/10/2008 ENG
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In surveys carried out in nine regions of Paraná State between the 1st semester of 2004 and the 2nd semester of 2006, comprising 15 properties growing cut and potted gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii), nine plant pathogenic agents were identified: eight of fungal and one of bacterial nature (Erysiphe cichoracearum, Pythium sp., Phytophthora sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Cercospora gerberae, Botrytis cinerea, Albugo tragopogonis, Capnodium sp. and Pseudomonas cichorii). The identification of these pathogens, descriptions of symptoms and period of occurrence provides some basic information for future researches on epidemiology and control of gerbera diseases in the Paraná State, Brazil.; Em inspeções realizadas em 15 propriedades produtoras de gérbera (Gerbera jamesonii H. Bolus ex Hook. f.) de corte e de vaso, no período compreendido entre o 1º semestre de 2004 e 2º semestre de 2006, abrangendo nove regiões do Estado do Paraná, foram identificados nove agentes causais de doenças: oito de natureza fúngica e uma bacteriana: Erysiphe cichoracearum, Pythium sp., Phytophthora sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Cercospora gerberae, Botrytis cinerea, Albugo tragopogonis, Capnodium sp. e Pseudomonas cichorii.  A identificação dos agentes causais das doenças...