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Immunity and tolerance to infections in experimental hematopoietic transplantation

Carvalho, Agostinho; Cunha, Cristina; Romani, Luigina
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2011 ENG
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573.34414%
Resistance and tolerance are two types of host defense mechanisms that increase fitness in response to fungi. Several genetic polymorphisms in pattern recognition receptors, most remarkably Toll-like receptors (TLRs), have been described to influence resistance and tolerance to aspergillosis in distinct clinical settings. TLRs on dendritic cells pivotally contribute in determining the balance between immunopathology and protective immunity to the fungus. Epithelial cells also contribute to this balance via selected TLRs converging on indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Studies in experimental hematopoietic transplantation confirmed the dichotomy of pathways leading to resistance and tolerance to the fungus providing new insights on the relative contribution of the hematopoietic/nonhematopoietic compartments.; This work was supported by the Specific Targeted Research Project SYBARIS (LSHE-CT-2006), contract number 242220 (FP7), and by the Italian Project PRIN 2007KLCKP8_004. Agostinho Carvalho and Cristina Cunha were financially supported by fellowships from Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, Portugal (contracts SFRH/BPD/46292/2008 and SFRH/BD/65962/2009 respectively).

Role of Adult Worm Antigen-Specific Immunoglobulin E in Acquired Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Baboons

Nyindo, Mramba; Kariuki, Thomas M.; Mola, Paul W.; Farah, Idle O.; Elson, Lynne; Blanton, Ronald E.; King, Christopher L.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
570.25125%
Allergic-type immune responses, particularly immunoglobulin E (IgE), correlate with protective immunity in human schistosomiasis. To better understand the mechanisms of parasite elimination we examined the immune correlates of protection in baboons (Papio cynocephalus anubis), which are natural hosts for Schistosoma mansoni and also develop allergic-type immunity with infection. In one experiment, animals were exposed to a single infection (1,000 cercariae) or were exposed multiple times (100 cercariae per week for 10 weeks) and subsequently were cured with praziquantel prior to challenge with 1,000 cercariae. Singly and multiply infected animals mounted 59 and 80% reductions in worm burden, respectively (P < 0.01). In a second experiment, animals were inoculated with S. mansoni ova and recombinant human interleukin 12 (IL-12). This produced a 37 to 39% reduction in adult worm burden after challenge (P < 0.05). Parasite-specific IgG, IgE, IgM, and peripheral blood cytokine production were evaluated. The only immune correlate of protection in both experiments was levels of soluble adult worm antigen (SWAP)-specific IgE in serum at the time of challenge infection and/or 6 weeks later. Baboons repeatedly infected with cercariae or immunized with ova and IL-12 developed two- to sixfold-greater levels of SWAP-specific IgE in serum than did controls...

Immunoglobulin E and Eosinophil-Dependent Protective Immunity to Larval Onchocerca volvulus in Mice Immunized with Irradiated Larvae

Abraham, David; Leon, Ofra; Schnyder-Candrian, Silvia; Wang, Chun Chi; Galioto, Ann Marie; Kerepesi, Laura A.; Lee, James J.; Lustigman, Sara
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
572.53246%
Mice immunized with irradiated Onchocerca volvulus third-stage larvae developed protective immunity. Eosinophil levels were elevated in the parasite microenvironment at the time of larval killing, and measurements of total serum antibody levels revealed an increase in the immunoglobulin E (IgE) level in immunized mice. The goal of the present study was to identify the role of granulocytes and antibodies in the protective immune response to the larval stages of O. volvulus in mice immunized with irradiated larvae. Immunity did not develop in mice if granulocytes, including both neutrophils and eosinophils, were eliminated, nor did it develop if only eosinophils were eliminated. Moreover, larvae were killed in naïve interleukin-5 transgenic mice, and the killing coincided with an increase in the number of eosinophils and the eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) level in the animals. To determine if EPO was required for protective immunity, mice that were genetically deficient in EPO were immunized, and there were no differences in the rates of parasite recovery in EPO-deficient mice and wild-type mice. Two mouse strains were used to study B-cell function; μMT mice lacked all mature B cells, and Xid mice had deficiencies in the B-1 cell population. Immunity did not develop in the μMT mice but did develop in the Xid mice. Finally...

DNA Immunization with Na+-K+ATPase (Sseat-6) Induces Protective Immunity to Larval Strongyloides stercoralis in Mice

Kerepesi, Laura A.; Keiser, Paul B.; Nolan, Thomas J.; Schad, Gerhard A.; Abraham, David; Nutman, Thomas B.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2005 EN
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577.93984%
Strongyloides stercoralis causes chronic asymptomatic infections which can be maintained in the human host for many decades. Identification and treatment of S. stercoralis-infected individuals is required because immunosuppression can lead to fatal hyperinfection. In this study, human immunoglobulin G (IgG) that had previously been shown to transfer protective immunity to mice was used to identify potential protective antigens. Three antigens or genes from S. stercoralis larvae were identified as tropomyosin (Sstmy-1), Na+-K+ATPase (Sseat-6), and LEC-5 (Sslec-5). The genes were cloned into plasmids for DNA immunization, and mice were immunized intradermally with the three plasmids individually in combination with a plasmid containing murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Only Na+-K+ATPase induced a significant reduction in larval survival after DNA immunization. Immunization with a combination of all three plasmids, including Na+-K+ATPase, did not induce protective immunity. Serum from mice immunized with DNA encoding Na+-K+ATPase was transferred to naïve mice and resulted in partial protective immunity. Therefore, DNA immunization with Na+-K+ATPase induces protective immunity in mice, and it is the first identified vaccine candidate against infection with larval S. stercoralis.

Impairment of Protective Immunity to Blood-Stage Malaria by Concurrent Nematode Infection

Su, Zhong; Segura, Mariela; Morgan, Kenneth; Loredo-Osti, J. Concepcion; Stevenson, Mary M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2005 EN
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578.2913%
Helminthiases, which are highly prevalent in areas where malaria is endemic, have been shown to modulate or suppress the immune response to unrelated antigens or pathogens. In this study, we established a murine model of coinfection with a gastrointestinal nematode parasite, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, and the blood-stage malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi AS in order to investigate the modulation of antimalarial immunity by concurrent nematode infection. Chronic infection with the nematode for 2, 3, or 5 weeks before P. chabaudi AS infection severely impaired the ability of C57BL/6 mice to control malaria, as demonstrated by severe mortality and significantly increased malaria peak parasitemia levels. Coinfected mice produced significantly lower levels of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) during P. chabaudi AS infection than mice infected with malaria alone. Concurrent nematode infection also suppressed production of type 1-associated, malaria-specific immunoglobulin G2a. Mice either infected with the nematode alone or coinfected with the nematode and malaria had high transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) levels, and concurrent nematode and malaria infections resulted in high levels of interleukin-10 in vivo. Splenic CD11c+ dendritic cells (DC) from mice infected with malaria alone and coinfected mice showed similarly increased expression of CD40...

In the Absence of CD154, Administration of Interleukin-12 Restores Th1 Responses but Not Protective Immunity to Schistosoma mansoni▿

Hewitson, James P.; Hamblin, Paul A.; Mountford, Adrian P.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
571.4617%
The cytokine interplay during the development of protective immunity to the radiation-attenuated (RA) schistosome vaccine has been extensively characterized over recent years, yet the role of costimulatory molecules in the development of cell-mediated immunity is much less well understood. Here we demonstrate the importance of CD40/CD154 in vaccine-induced immunity, as CD154−/− mice exposed to RA schistosomes develop no protection to challenge infection. We showed that vaccinated CD154−/− mice have defective Th1-associated immune responses in the skin-draining lymph nodes and the lungs, with reduced or absent levels of interleukin-12p40 (IL-12p40), gamma interferon, and nitric oxide, but elevated levels of lung IL-4 and IL-5. The expression of major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II) on antigen-presenting cells recovered from the lungs of vaccinated CD154−/− mice was also severely compromised. The administration of anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody (MAb) to CD154−/− mice did not reconstitute sustained Th1 responses in the lymph nodes or the lungs, nor did the MAb restore anti-parasite immunoglobulin G production or protective immunity. On the other hand, the administration of recombinant IL-12 (rIL-12) to CD154−/− mice shortly after vaccination caused elevated and sustained levels of Th1-associated cytokines...

Secreted Antibody Is Required for Immunity to Plasmodium berghei ▿

Nunes, Julia K.; Starnbach, Michael N.; Wirth, Dyann F.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
580.96992%
Infection with Plasmodium berghei is lethal to mice, causing high levels of parasitemia, severe anemia, and death. However, when mice are treated with antimalarial drugs during acute infection, they have enhanced immunity to subsequent infections. With this infection and cure model of immunity, we systematically examined the basis of adaptive immunity to infection using immunodeficient mice. In order to induce adaptive immunity, mice were infected with blood-stage parasites. When the mice developed 2 to 3% parasitemia, they were treated with chloroquine to cure the infection. These convalescent mice were then challenged with homologous blood-stage parasites. Immunized wild-type mice were able to control the level of infection. In contrast, mice lacking mature B cells and T cells were unable to control a challenge infection, indicating the critical role of lymphocytes in immunity to P. berghei. Furthermore, mice lacking secreted antibody were unable to control the level of parasitemia following a challenge infection. Our results indicate that secreted antibody is a requirement for immunity to P. berghei.

Long-Term Immunity to Lethal Acute or Chronic Type II Toxoplasma gondii Infection Is Effectively Induced in Genetically Susceptible C57BL/6 Mice by Immunization with an Attenuated Type I Vaccine Strain▿

Gigley, Jason P.; Fox, Barbara A.; Bzik, David J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
583.04188%
C57BL/6 (B6) mice are genetically highly susceptible to chronic type II Toxoplasma gondii infections that invariably cause lethal toxoplasmic encephalitis. We examined the ability of an attenuated type I vaccine strain to elicit long-term immunity to lethal acute or chronic type II infections in susceptible B6 mice. Mice immunized with the type I cps1-1 vaccine strain were not susceptible to a lethal (100-cyst) challenge with the type II strain ME49. Immunized mice challenged with 10 ME49 cysts exhibited significant reductions in brain cyst and parasite burdens compared to naive mice, regardless of the route of challenge infection. Remarkably, cps1-1 strain-immunized B6 mice chronically infected with ME49 survived for at least 12 months without succumbing to the chronic infection. Potent immunity to type II challenge infections persisted for at least 10 months after vaccination. While the cps1-1 strain-elicited immunity did not prevent the establishment of a chronic infection or clear established brain cysts, cps1-1 strain-elicited CD8+ immune T cells significantly inhibited recrudescence of brain cysts during chronic ME49 infection. In addition, we show that uracil starvation of the cps1-1 strain induces early markers of bradyzoite differentiation. Collectively...

Allele Specificity of Gamma Interferon Responses to the Carboxyl-Terminal Region of Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein 1 by Kenyan Adults with Naturally Acquired Immunity to Malaria▿

Spring, Michele D.; Chelimo, Kiprotich; Tisch, Daniel J.; Sumba, Peter Odada; Rochford, Rosemary; Long, Carole A.; Kazura, James W.; Moormann, Ann M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
584.23133%
Cross-sectional seroepidemiological studies of populations naturally exposed to Plasmodium falciparum suggest an association between protection from malaria and circulating antibodies to the carboxyl terminus of merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1). Questions remain regarding the significance of cell-mediated immunity to MSP1 in conferring protection and inducing immunologic memory. Vaccine constructs have been based on the 42-kDa recombinant MSP1 protein (MSP142), which includes the 19-kDa (MSP119) and 33-kDa (MSP133) fragments containing the major B- and T-cell epitopes, respectively. To evaluate T-cell responses to the MSP133 fragment, two libraries of overlapping 18-mer peptides from the 3D7 and FVO MSP133 regions were used to screen a cohort of asymptomatic Kenyan adults. Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) measured by enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) at multiple time points assessed the magnitude and stability of these responses. The percentage of individuals with IFN-γ responses to single MSP133 peptides ranged from nil to 24%, were clustered among a subset of peptides, and were not consistently recalled over time. In comparison to peptide responses, IFN-γ ELISPOT responses to recombinant MSP142 were more prevalent, more frequently elicited by the 3D7 as opposed to the FVO allele...

Interleukin-21: A Multifunctional Regulator of Immunity to Infections

Yi, John S.; Cox, Maureen A.; Zajac, Allan J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
679.0341%
Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is a cytokine that has broad effects on both innate and adaptive immune responses. The roles of IL-21 in determining immunity to infections are currently being defined, and notably, it has been shown that IL-21 is most critical for sustaining T cell responses during chronic viral infections. This article discusses our current understanding of the immunobiology of IL-21, as well as its known and potential roles in influencing immunity to infections.

Molecular Basis of Immunity to Rickettsial Infection Conferred through Outer Membrane Protein B ▿ †

Chan, Yvonne Gar-Yun; Riley, Sean Phillip; Chen, Emily; Martinez, Juan José
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
571.4617%
Pathogenic rickettsiae are the causative agents of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus, and other human diseases with high mortality and an important impact on society. Although survivors of rickettsial infections are considered immune to disease, the molecular basis of this immunity or the identification of protective antigens that enable vaccine development was hitherto not known. By exploring the molecular pathogenesis of Rickettsia conorii, the agent of Mediterranean spotted fever, we report here that the autotransporter protein, rickettsial outer membrane protein B (rOmpB), constitutes a protective antigen for this group of pathogens. A recombinant, purified rOmpB passenger domain fragment comprised of amino acids 36 to 1334 is sufficient to elicit humoral immune responses that protect animals against lethal disease. Protective immunity requires folded antigen and production of antibodies that recognize conformational epitopes on the rickettsial surface. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 5C7.27 and 5C7.31, which specifically recognize a conformation present in the folded, intact rOmpB passenger domain, are sufficient to confer immunity in vivo. Analyses in vitro indicate this protection involves a mechanism of complement-mediated killing in mammalian blood...

Interleukin-17-Induced Protein Lipocalin 2 Is Dispensable for Immunity to Oral Candidiasis

Ferreira, Maria Carolina; Whibley, Natasha; Mamo, Anna J.; Siebenlist, Ulrich; Chan, Yvonne R.; Gaffen, Sarah L.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
570.32656%
Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC; thrush) is an opportunistic fungal infection caused by the commensal microbe Candida albicans. Immunity to OPC is strongly dependent on CD4+ T cells, particularly those of the Th17 subset. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) deficiency in mice or humans leads to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, but the specific downstream mechanisms of IL-17-mediated host defense remain unclear. Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2; 24p3; neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL]) is an antimicrobial host defense factor produced in response to inflammatory cytokines, particularly IL-17. Lcn2 plays a key role in preventing iron acquisition by bacteria that use catecholate-type siderophores, and lipocalin 2−/− mice are highly susceptible to infection by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The role of Lcn2 in mediating immunity to fungi is poorly defined. Accordingly, in this study, we evaluated the role of Lcn2 in immunity to oral infection with C. albicans. Lcn2 is strongly upregulated following oral infection with C. albicans, and its expression is almost entirely abrogated in mice with defective IL-17 signaling (IL-17RA−/− or Act1−/− mice). However, Lcn2−/− mice were completely resistant to OPC, comparably to wild-type (WT) mice. Moreover...

The Adaptor CARD9 Is Required for Adaptive but Not Innate Immunity to Oral Mucosal Candida albicans Infections

Bishu, Shrinivas; Hernández-Santos, Nydiaris; Simpson-Abelson, Michelle R.; Huppler, Anna R.; Conti, Heather R.; Ghilardi, Nico; Mamo, Anna J.; Gaffen, Sarah L.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
573.6275%
Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC [thrush]) is an opportunistic infection caused by the commensal fungus Candida albicans. OPC is common in individuals with HIV/AIDS, infants, patients on chemotherapy, and individuals with congenital immune defects. Immunity to OPC is strongly dependent on the interleukin-23 (IL-23)/IL-17R axis, as mice and humans with defects in IL-17R signaling (IL17F, ACT1, IL-17RA) or in genes that direct Th17 differentiation (STAT3, STAT1, CARD9) are prone to mucocutaneous candidiasis. Conventional Th17 cells are induced in response to C. albicans infection via signals from C-type lectin receptors, which signal through the adaptor CARD9, leading to production of Th17-inducing cytokines such as IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-23. Recent data indicate that IL-17 can also be made by numerous innate cell subsets. These innate “type 17” cells resemble conventional Th17 cells, but they can be activated without need for prior antigen exposure. Because C. albicans is not a commensal organism in rodents and mice are thus naive to this fungus, we had the opportunity to assess the role of CARD9 in innate versus adaptive responses using an OPC infection model. As expected, CARD9−/− mice failed to mount an adaptive Th17 response following oral Candida infection. Surprisingly...

T-cell STAT3 is required for the maintenance of humoral immunity to LCMV

McIlwain, David R; Grusdat, Melanie; Pozdeev, Vitaly I; Xu, Haifeng C; Shinde, Prashant; Reardon, Colin; Hao, Zhenyue; Beyer, Marc; Bergthaler, Andreas; Häussinger, Dieter; Nolan, Garry P; Lang, Karl S; Lang, Philipp A
Fonte: BlackWell Publishing Ltd Publicador: BlackWell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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673.5741%
STAT3 is a critical transcription factor activated downstream of cytokine signaling and is integral for the function of multiple immune cell types. Human mutations in STAT3 cause primary immunodeficiency resulting in impaired control of a variety of infections, including reactivation of latent viruses. In this study, we investigate how T-cell functions of STAT3 contribute to responses to viral infection by inducing chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection in mice lacking STAT3 specifically in T cells. Although mice with conditional disruption of STAT3 in T cells were able to mount early responses to viral infection similar to control animals, including expansion of effector T cells, we found generation of T-follicular helper (Tfh) cells to be impaired. As a result, STAT3 T cell deficient mice produced attenuated germinal center reactions, and did not accumulate bone marrow virus specific IgG-secreting cells, resulting in failure to maintain levels of virus-specific IgG or mount neutralizing responses to LCMV in the serum. These effects were associated with reduced control of viral replication and prolonged infection. Our results demonstrate the importance of STAT3 in T cells for the generation of functional long-term humoral immunity to viral infections.

The Bidirectional Relationship between Sleep and Immunity against Infections

Ibarra-Coronado, Elizabeth G.; Pantaleón-Martínez, Ana Ma.; Velazquéz-Moctezuma, Javier; Prospéro-García, Oscar; Méndez-Díaz, Mónica; Pérez-Tapia, Mayra; Pavón, Lenin; Morales-Montor, Jorge
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
583.26258%
Sleep is considered an important modulator of the immune response. Thus, a lack of sleep can weaken immunity, increasing organism susceptibility to infection. For instance, shorter sleep durations are associated with a rise in suffering from the common cold. The function of sleep in altering immune responses must be determined to understand how sleep deprivation increases the susceptibility to viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections. There are several explanations for greater susceptibility to infections after reduced sleep, such as impaired mitogenic proliferation of lymphocytes, decreased HLA-DR expression, the upregulation of CD14+, and variations in CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, which have been observed during partial sleep deprivation. Also, steroid hormones, in addition to regulating sexual behavior, influence sleep. Thus, we hypothesize that sleep and the immune-endocrine system have a bidirectional relationship in governing various physiological processes, including immunity to infections. This review discusses the evidence on the bidirectional effects of the immune response against viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections on sleep patterns and how the lack of sleep affects the immune response against such agents. Because sleep is essential in the maintenance of homeostasis...

The classical pathway is the dominant complement pathway required for innate immunity to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in mice

Brown, J.; Hussell, T.; Gilliland, S.; Holden, D.; Paton, J.; Ehrenstein, M.; Walport, M.; Botto, M.
Fonte: Natl Acad Sciences Publicador: Natl Acad Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 EN
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572.7382%
The complement system is an important component of the innate immune response to bacterial pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. The classical complement pathway is activated by antibody–antigen complexes on the bacterial surface and has been considered predominately to be an effector of the adaptive immune response, whereas the alternative and mannose-binding lectin pathways are activated directly by bacterial cell surface components and are considered effectors of the innate immune response. Recently, a role has been suggested for the classical pathway during innate immunity that is activated by natural IgM or components of the acute-phase response bound to bacterial pathogens. However, the functional importance of the classical pathway for innate immunity to S. pneumoniae and other bacterial pathogens, and its relative contribution compared with the alternative and mannose-binding lectin pathways has not been defined. By using strains of mice with genetic deficiencies of complement components and secretory IgM we have investigated the role of each complement pathway and natural IgM for innate immunity to S. pneumoniae. Our results show that the proportion of a population of S. pneumoniae bound by C3 depends mainly on the classical pathway...

The role of complement in innate, adaptive and eosinophil-dependent immunity to the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis

Giacomin, P.; Gordon, D.; Botto, M.; Daha, M.; Sanderson, S.; Taylor, S.; Dent, L.
Fonte: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd Publicador: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
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585.18137%
Complement may be important for immunity to infection with parasitic helminths, by promoting the recruitment of leukocytes to infected tissues and by modulating the function of cytotoxic effector leukocytes. However, the importance of complement in vivo during helminth infection is poorly understood. In this study, mice lacking classical (C1q-deficient), alternative (factor B-deficient) or all pathways of complement activation (C3-deficient) were used to assess the role of complement in immunity to the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Double-mutant complement-deficient/IL-5 transgenic (Tg) mice were used to determine if complement is required for the strong eosinophil-dependent resistance to this parasite. Complement activation on larvae (C3 deposition), extracellular eosinophil peroxidase activity, larval aggregation and eosinophil recruitment to the skin 30 min post-injection (p.i.) of larvae were reduced in factor B-deficient mice. Inhibition of the C5a receptor with the antagonist PMX53 impaired eosinophil and neutrophil recruitment to the skin. C3 deposition on larvae was minimal by 150 min p.i. and at this time cell adherence, larval aggregation, eosinophil recruitment and degranulation were complement-independent. Factor B and C3 deficiency were associated with higher lung larval burdens in primary infections. Complement-deficient/IL-5 Tg mice were highly resistant to N. brasiliensis...

Role of natural killer T cells (NKT) cells in immunity to herpes simplex virus type 1.

Grubor-Bauk, Branka
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2007
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578.60367%
Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-I) produces acute muco-cutaneous infections, followed by spread to sensory nerve ganglia, and establishment of latency. In the peripheral nervous system, primary sensory neurons, which are found in dorsal root ganglia of the of the spinal nerves, are the target for HSV and they may undergo either productive or latent intection. Productive infection of sensory neurons generates the potential for lethal spread of virus through the nervous system but in immunocom petent hosts, viral replication is terminated by limely development of an adaptive immune response. The infection of dorsal root ganglia that follows cutaneous inoculation of the flanks of mice with HSV provides a well-characterized model of peripheral nervous system infection. The mechanisms responsible for clearance of HSV are complex. At mucosal and cutaneous sites, local innate immune mechanisms act to interrupt the initial spread of virus to the nervous system, while adaptive immunity is important in limiting replication in the ganglia and extension of the virus to adjacent dennatomes. Thus actions of both the innate and the adaptive immune systems are vital in defence against replicating HSV-1, while it is thought that latent infection in the ganglia is contained by the surveillance of the adaptive immune system. Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a conserved subpopulation of lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the invariant MHC class I-like molecule CD1d. Upon activation through their semi-invariant T cell receptor...

Associations between Responses to the Rhoptry-Associated Membrane Antigen of Plasmodium falciparum and Immunity to Malaria Infection

Topolska, Agnieszka E.; Richie, Thomas L.; Nhan, Doan Hanh; Coppel, Ross L.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2004 EN
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573.5741%
Rhoptry proteins participate in the invasion of red blood cells by merozoites during the malaria parasite's asexual-stage cycle. Interference with the rhoptry protein function has been shown to prevent invasion, and three rhoptry proteins have been suggested as potential components of a vaccine against malaria. Rhoptry-associated membrane antigen (RAMA) is a 170-kDa protein of Plasmodium falciparum which is processed to a 60-kDa mature form in the rhoptries. p60/RAMA is discharged from rhoptries of free merozoites and binds to the red-cell membrane before being internalized to form part of the parasitophorous vacuole of the newly developing ring. We examined the range of anti-RAMA responses in individuals living in an area of endemicity for malaria and determined its association with clinical immunity. RAMA is immunogenic during infections, and at least three epitopes within RAMA are recognized by hyperimmune sera in immunoblots. Sera from individuals living in a region of Vietnam where malaria is endemic possessed strong antibody responses toward two C-terminal regions of RAMA. Cytophilic antibody isotypes (immunoglobulin G1 [IgG1] and IgG3) predominated in humoral responses to both C-terminal epitopes. Acute episodes of P. falciparum infection result in significant boosting of levels of antibody to an epitope at the extreme C terminus of RAMA that harbors the red-cell-binding domain. Immunity to P. falciparum infection was linked to elevated levels of IgG3 responses to this functional domain of RAMA...

Modeling the Development of Acquired Clinical Immunity to Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

Gatton, Michelle L.; Cheng, Qin
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2004 EN
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587.9989%
Individuals living in regions where malaria is endemic develop an acquired immunity to malaria which enables them to remain asymptomatic while still carrying parasites. Field studies indicate that cumulative exposure to a variety of diverse Plasmodium parasites is required for the transition from symptomatic to asymptomatic malaria. This study used a simulation model of the within-host dynamics of P. falciparum to investigate the development of acquired clinical immunity under different transmission conditions and levels of parasite diversity. Antibodies developed to P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), a clonally variant molecule, were assumed to be a key human immunological response to P. falciparum infection, along with responses to clonally conserved but polymorphic antigens. The time to the development of clinical immunity was found to be proportional to parasite diversity and inversely proportional to transmission intensity. The effect of early termination of symptomatic infections by chemotherapy was investigated and found not to inhibit the host's ability to develop acquired immunity. However, the time required to achieve this state was approximately double that compared to when no treatment was administered. This study demonstrates that an immune response primarily targeted against PfEMP1 has the ability to reduce clinical symptoms of infections irrespective of whether treatment is administered...