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Phosphate Acquisition Components of the Myxococcus xanthus Pho Regulon Are Regulated by both Phosphate Availability and Development▿

Whitworth, David E.; Holmes, Antony B.; Irvine, Alistair G.; Hodgson, David A.; Scanlan, David J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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In many organisms, phosphatase expression and phosphate (P) uptake are coordinately regulated by the Pho regulon. In Myxococcus xanthus P limitation initiates multicellular development, a process associated with changes in phosphatase expression. We sought here to characterize the link between P acquisition and development in this bacterium, an organism capable of preying upon other microorganisms as a sole nutrient source. M. xanthus seems to possess no significant internal P stores, as reducing the P concentration to less than 10 μM retarded growth within one doubling time. Pyrophosphate, polyphosphate, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate could support growth as sole P sources, although many other P-containing biomolecules could not (including nucleic acids and phospholipids). Several Pho regulon promoters were found to be highly active during vegetative growth, and P limitation specifically induced pstSCAB, AcPA1, and pho3 promoter activity and repressed pit expression. Enhanced pstSCAB and pho3 promoter activities in a phoP4 mutant (in the presence of high and low concentrations of P) suggested that PhoP4 acts as a repressor of these genes. However, in a phoP4 background, the activities of pstSCAB remained P regulated, suggesting that there is additional regulation by a P-sensitive factor. Initiation of multicellular development caused immediate down-regulation of Pho regulon genes and caused pstSCAB and pho3 promoter activities to become P insensitive. Hence...

Cell Wall Hydrolases Affect Germination, Vegetative Growth, and Sporulation in Streptomyces coelicolor▿ †

Haiser, Henry J.; Yousef, Mary R.; Elliot, Marie A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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674.7995%
Peptidoglycan is a major cell wall constituent of gram-positive bacteria. It is a dynamic macromolecule that is actively remodeled to enable cell growth and differentiation through a tightly choreographed interplay of hydrolytic and biosynthetic enzyme activities. The filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor has a complex life cycle that likely requires considerable cell wall remodeling to enable both extension of vegetative hyphae and formation of differentiated cell types. In silico analysis of the S. coelicolor genome enabled identification of 56 candidate cell wall hydrolase genes. We found that seven of these genes shared a highly conserved 5′ untranslated region and were expressed during both vegetative growth and sporulation; four of these genes were selected for more extensive biochemical and biological characterization. The proteins encoded by these genes, termed RpfA, SwlA, SwlB, and SwlC, were confirmed to be hydrolytic enzymes, as they could efficiently cleave S. coelicolor cell walls. Phenotypic analyses revealed that these enzymes are important throughout development; deletion of each hydrolase gene resulted in a mutant strain that was heat sensitive, defective in spore formation, and either altered in vegetative growth or delayed in spore germination. Our results indicate that these enzymes play key roles at multiple stages in the growth and development of S. coelicolor...