Página 2 dos resultados de 120 itens digitais encontrados em 0.001 segundos

Signal transduction in macrophages by glycosylphosphatidylinositols of Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, and Leishmania: Activation of protein tyrosine kinases and protein kinase C by inositolglycan and diacylglycerol moieties

Tachado, Souvenir D.; Gerold, Peter; Schwarz, Ralph; Novakovic, Suzanna; McConville, Malcolm; Schofield, Louis
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/04/1997 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
283.89842%
The perturbation of various glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored surface proteins imparts profound regulatory signals to macrophages, lymphocytes and other cell types. The specific contribution of the GPI moieties to these events however is unclear. This study demonstrates that purified GPIs of Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma brucei, and Leishmania mexicana origin are sufficient to initiate signal transduction when added alone to host cells as chemically defined agonists. GPIs (10 nM–1 μM) induce rapid activation of the protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) p59hck in macrophages. The minimal structural requirement for PTK activation is the evolutionarily conserved core glycan sequence Manα1-2Manα1-6Manα1-4GlcN1-6myo-inositol. GPI-associated diacylglycerols independently activate the calcium-independent ɛ isoform of protein kinase C. Both signals collaborate in regulating the downstream NF-κB/rel-dependent gene expression of interleukin 1α, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, and inducible NO synthase. The alkylacylglycerol-containing iM4 GIPL of L. mexicana, however, is unable to activate protein kinase C and inhibits TNF expression in response to other agonists, establishing signaling specificity among structurally distinct GPIs. GPI alone appears sufficient to mimic the activities of malaria parasite extracts in the signaling pathway leading to TNF expression. A mAb to GPI blocks TNF induction by parasite extracts indicating that GPI is a necessary agent in this response. As protozoal GPIs are closely related to their mammalian counterparts...

DNA from Protozoan Parasites Babesia bovis, Trypanosoma cruzi, and T. brucei Is Mitogenic for B Lymphocytes and Stimulates Macrophage Expression of Interleukin-12, Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha, and Nitric Oxide

Shoda, Lisl K. M.; Kegerreis, Kimberly A.; Suarez, Carlos E.; Roditi, Isabel; Corral, Ricardo S.; Bertot, Gustavo M.; Norimine, Junzo; Brown, Wendy C.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
283.89842%
The activation of innate immune responses by genomic DNA from bacteria and several nonvertebrate organisms represents a novel mechanism of pathogen recognition. We recently demonstrated the CpG-dependent mitogenic activity of DNA from the protozoan parasite Babesia bovis for bovine B lymphocytes (W. C. Brown, D. M. Estes, S. E. Chantler, K. A. Kegerreis, and C. E. Suarez, Infect. Immun. 66:5423–5432, 1998). However, activation of macrophages by DNA from protozoan parasites has not been demonstrated. The present study was therefore conducted to determine whether DNA from the protozan parasites B. bovis, Trypanosoma cruzi, and T. brucei activates macrophages to secrete inflammatory mediators associated with protective immunity. DNA from Escherichia coli and all three parasites stimulated B-lymphocyte proliferation and increased macrophage production of interleukin-12 (IL-12), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and nitric oxide (NO). Regulation of IL-12 and NO production occurred at the level of transcription. The amounts of IL-12, TNF-α, and NO induced by E. coli and protozoal DNA were strongly correlated (r2 > 0.9) with the frequency of CG dinucleotides in the genome, and immunostimulation by DNA occurred in the order E. coli ≥ T. cruzi > T. brucei > B. bovis. Induction of inflammatory mediators by E. coli...

Babesia bovis-Stimulated Macrophages Express Interleukin-1β, Interleukin-12, Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha, and Nitric Oxide and Inhibit Parasite Replication In Vitro

Shoda, Lisl K. M.; Palmer, Guy H.; Florin-Christensen, Jorge; Florin-Christensen, Monica; Godson, Dale L.; Brown, Wendy C.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
283.89842%
The tick-transmitted hemoparasite Babesia bovis causes an acute infection that results in persistence and immunity against challenge infection in cattle that control the initial parasitemia. Resolution of acute infection with this protozoal pathogen is believed to be dependent on products of activated macrophages (Mφ), including inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) and its derivatives. B. bovis stimulates inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and production of NO in bovine Mφ, and chemical donors of NO inhibit the growth of B. bovis in vitro. However, the induction of inflammatory cytokines in Mφ by babesial parasites has not been described, and the antiparasitic activity of NO produced by B. bovis-stimulated Mφ has not been definitively demonstrated. We report that monocyte-derived Mφ activated by B. bovis expressed enhanced levels of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor alpha that are important for stimulating innate and acquired immunity against protozoal pathogens. Furthermore, a lipid fraction of B. bovis-infected erythrocytes stimulated iNOS expression and NO production by Mφ. Cocultures of Mφ and B. bovis-infected erythrocytes either in contact or physically separated resulted in reduced parasite viability. However...

Shared themes of antigenic variation and virulence in bacterial, protozoal, and fungal infections.

Deitsch, K W; Moxon, E R; Wellems, T E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1997 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
274.9044%
Pathogenic microbes have evolved highly sophisticated mechanisms for colonizing host tissues and evading or deflecting assault by the immune response. The ability of these microbes to avoid clearance prolongs infection, thereby promoting their long-term survival within individual hosts and, through transmission, between hosts. Many pathogens are capable of extensive antigenic changes in the face of the multiple constitutive and dynamic components of host immune defenses. As a result, highly diverse populations that have widely different virulence properties can arise from a single infecting organism (clone). In this review, we consider the molecular and genetic features of antigenic variation and corresponding host-parasite interactions of different pathogenic bacterial, fungal, and protozoan microorganisms. The host and microbial molecules involved in these interactions often determine the adhesive, invasive, and antigenic properties of the infecting organisms and can dramatically affect the virulence and pathobiology of individual infections. Pathogens capable of such antigenic variation exhibit mechanisms of rapid mutability in confined chromosomal regions containing specialized genes designated contingency genes. The mechanisms of hypermutability of contingency genes are common to a variety of bacterial and eukaryotic pathogens and include promoter alterations...

Infectious complications after heart transplantation.

Cooper, D K; Lanza, R P; Oliver, S; Forder, A A; Rose, A G; Uys, C J; Novitzky, D; Barnard, C N
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1983 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
279.11586%
Infection has been the major cause of death and morbidity in patients undergoing cardiac transplantation at Groote Schuur Hospital. Twenty-two (55%) patients suffered at least one major episode of infection, which accounted for 10 (59%) of the deaths in the first year. The major site of origin of infection was the lung, though dissemination was not infrequent. Bacteria accounted for 22 (59%) infections; but viral, fungal and protozoal infections were not uncommon and in fact accounted for seven (64%) of the fatal infections. Several unusual causative microorganisms have been isolated in this group of immunocompromised subjects. There is a higher incidence of infection in patients over the age of 35 years and in patients who did not comply with instructions and advice.

Interleukin 2 receptor in patients with localized and systemic parasitic diseases.

Josimovic-Alasevic, O; Feldmeier, H; Zwingenberger, K; Harms, G; Hahn, H; Shrisuphanunt, M; Diamantstein, T
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1988 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
281.7075%
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify soluble interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R) in the serum of patients with helminthic and protozoal infections. The results demonstrated that levels of IL-2R were normal in patients with helminthic infections limited to the intestinal tract (ascariasis, trichuriasis), but significantly elevated in patients with systemic or long-lasting infections (strongyloidiasis, schistosomiasis, fascioliasis, opisthorchiasis). In patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni levels of IL-2R were higher in those with the hepatosplenic than in those with the intestinal form of the disease. Patients with malaria also showed increased serum levels of IL-2R, irrespective whether the infection was caused by Plasmodium falciparum or P. vivax. No difference was observed between patients with acute or history of malaria. The highest levels of IL-2R were observed in patients with visceral leishmaniasis. Interestingly, in these patients the concentration of IL-2R correlated to specific antibody titre. The results are discussed in the context of preferential activation of T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and/or macrophages during the course of the different parasitic infections investigated.

Giardiasis and other intestinal parasitic infections in a Manitoba residential school for the mentally retarded.

Naiman, H. L.; Sekla, L.; Albritton, W. L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/01/1980 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
279.11586%
A case of severely symptomatic giardiasis in a school for the mentally retarded prompted an epidemiologic survey of the institution. The rate of parasitic infection in the children were just under 50%. Multiple infections were common and one child harboured five different protozoa. The yield included known pathogens (Giardia lamblia, Metorchis conjunctus and Diphyllobothrium sp.), protozoa of potential pathogenicity (Dientamoeba fragilis) and other protozoa, the significance of which has yet to be determined. The prevalence of G. lamblia in the index ward was significantly higher than in a control ward matched for age and mobility of the children. The epidemiologic data suggested person-to-person transmission of G. lamblia within the institution. Recommendations for the control of protozoal intestinal infections in custodial institutions are presented.

Tropical malabsorption

Ramakrishna, B S; Venkataraman, S; Mukhopadhya, A
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
279.11586%
Malabsorption is an important clinical problem both in visitors to the tropics and in native residents of tropical countries. Infections of the small intestine are the most important cause of tropical malabsorption. Protozoal infections cause malabsorption in immunocompetent hosts, but do so more commonly in the setting of immune deficiency. Helminth infections occasionally cause malabsorption or protein‐losing enteropathy. Intestinal tuberculosis, chronic pancreatitis and small‐bowel bacterial overgrowth are important causes of tropical malabsorption. In recent years, inflammatory bowel disease and coeliac disease have become major causes of malabsorption in the tropics. Sporadic tropical sprue is still an important cause of malabsorption in adults and in children in South Asia. Investigations to exclude specific infective, immunological or inflammatory causes are important before considering tropical sprue as a diagnosis. This article briefly reviews the management of tropical sprue and presents an algorithm for its investigation and management.

Systemic Spironucleosis In Two Immunodeficient Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

Bailey, C; Kramer, J; Mejia, A; MacKey, J; Mansfield, KG; Miller, AD
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
279.11586%
Spironucleus spp. are parasites of fish and terrestrial vertebrates including mice and turkeys that rarely cause extraintestinal disease. Two rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were experimentally inoculated with simian immunodeficiency virus mac251 (SIVmac251). Both progressed to simian acquired immune deficiency syndrome (SAIDS) within one year of inoculation and, in addition to common opportunistic infections including rhesus cytomegalovirus, rhesus lymphocryptovirus, and rhesus adenovirus, developed systemic protozoal infections. In the first case, the protozoa were associated with colitis, multifocal abdominal abscessation, and lymphadenitis. In the second case they one of a number of organisms associated with extensive pyogranulomatous pneumonia and colitis. Ultrastructural, molecular, and phylogenetic analysis revealed the causative organism to be a species of Spironucleus closely related to Spironucleus meleagridis of turkeys. This is the first report of extraintestinal infection with Spironucleus sp. in higher mammals and further expands the list of opportunistic infections found in immunocompromised rhesus macaques.

HIV/AIDS-Associated Opportunistic Protozoal Diarrhea

Agholi, Mahmoud; Hatam, Gholam Reza; Motazedian, Mohammad Hossein
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
279.11586%
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has altered both the epidemiology and outcome of enteric opportunistic parasitic infections. This study was done to determine the prevalence and species/genotypes of intestinal coccidian and microsporidial infections among HIV/AIDS patients with diarrhea and/or a history of diarrhea alternately with an asymptomatic interval, and their association with CD4 T cell count. This cross-sectional study was done from May 2010 to May 2011 in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, South of Iran. A blood sample was obtained from HIV-positive patients for a CD4 T cell count upon enrollment. Sociodemographic data and a history of diarrhea were collected by interviewing 356 consecutive participants (273 males and 83 females). Whenever possible more than a fecal sample was collected from all the participants and examined for parasites using direct, physiological saline solution ethyl acetate, an acid-fast trichrome stain, nested polymerase chain reaction, and sequencing techniques for the detection, confirmation, and genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp., Cyclospora cayetanensis, Isospora belli, and intestinal microsporidia (Enterocytozoon bieneusi). The most common opportunistic and nonopportunistic pathogens were Cryptosporidium spp. (C. parvum and C. andersoni)...

Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Campylobacter Infections Associated with Reduced Growth in Peruvian Children

Lee, Gwenyth; Pan, William; Peñataro Yori, Pablo; Paredes Olortegui, Maribel; Tilley, Drake; Gregory, Michael; Oberhelman, Richard; Burga, Rosa; Chavez, Cesar Banda; Kosek, Margaret
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/01/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
285.68982%
Campylobacter is a common cause of diarrheal disease among children at risk for growth failure in the developing world. We evaluated risk factors for Campylobacter infection as well as the association between symptomatic and asymptomatic Campylobacter infections and child growth over three and nine-month periods. Undernourished (stunted) children were more likely to experience a Campylobacter infection, but adjusting for a recent history of diarrheal disease attenuated this relationship. Both symptomatic and asymptomatic infections were associated with poorer weight gain and symptomatic Campylobacter infections were marginally associated with poorer linear growth on an order similar to what has been reported for other bacterial pathogens and less than what has been reported for some protozoal and parasitic infections. In a subset of severe infections that made up about twenty percent of total illnesses, the associations were poorer growth were of greater magnitude. Campylobacter infections are frequently viewed as benign, but our study suggests that this is not always the case. Rapid diagnostics for Campylobacter jejuni and coli could attenuate acquired linear growth deficits in populations where campylobacteriosis is highly endemic by facilitating improved case management.

The relative contribution of co-infection to focal infection risk in children

Lello, Joanne; Knopp, Stefanie; Mohammed, Khalfan A.; Khamis, I. Simba; Utzinger, Jürg; Viney, Mark E.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/03/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
284.73113%
Co-infection is ubiquitous in people in the developing world but little is known regarding the potential for one parasite to act as a risk factor for another. Using generalized linear mixed modelling approaches applied to data from school-aged children from Zanzibar, Tanzania, we determined the strength of association between four focal infections (i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm and self-reported fever, the latter used as a proxy for viral, bacterial or protozoal infections) and the prevalence or intensity of each of the helminth infections. We compared these potential co-infections with additional risk factors, specifically, host sex and age, socioeconomic status and physical environment, and determined what the relative contribution of each risk factor was. We found that the risk of infection with all four focal infections was strongly associated with at least one other infection, and that this was frequently dependent on the intensity of that other infection. In comparison, no other incorporated risk factor was associated with all focal infections. Successful control of infectious diseases requires identification of infection risk factors. This study demonstrates that co-infection is likely to be one of these principal risk factors and should therefore be given greater consideration when designing disease-control strategies. Future work should also incorporate other potential risk factors...

Exploring novel strategies for AIDS protozoal pathogens: α-helix mimetics targeting a key allosteric protein–protein interaction in C. hominis TS–DHFR

Martucci, W. Edward; Rodriguez, Johanna M.; Vargo, Melissa A.; Marr, Matthew; Hamilton, Andrew D.; Anderson, Karen S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
283.89842%
The bifunctional enzyme thymidylate synthase–dihydrofolate reductase (TS–DHFR) from the protozoal parasite Cryptosporidium hominis is a potential molecular target for the design of antiparasitic therapies for AIDS-related opportunistic infections. The enzyme exists as a homodimer with each monomer containing a unique swap domain known as a “crossover helix” that binds in a cleft on the adjacent DHFR active site. This crossover helix is absent in species containing monofunctional forms of DHFR such as human. An in-depth understanding of protein–protein interactions between the crossover helix and adjacent DHFR active site that might modulate enzyme integrity or function would allow for insights into rational design of species-specific allosteric inhibitors. Mutational analysis coupled with structural studies and biophysical and kinetic characterization of crossover helix mutants identifies this domain as essential for full enzyme stability and catalytic activity, and pinpoints these effects to distinct faces of the crossover helix important in protein–protein interactions. Moreover, targeting this helical protein interaction with α-helix mimetics of the crossover helix leads to selective inhibition and destabilization of the C. hominis TS–DHFR enzyme...

Granuloma with langhans giant cells: An overview

Kumar, S Nalin; Prasad, T Srinivasa; Narayan, P Anantha; Muruganandhan, J
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
279.11586%
Granuloma formation with multinucleated giant cells is seen in numerous diseases. A granuloma is a focus of chronic inflammation consisting of a microscopic aggregation of macrophages surrounded by a collar of lymphocytes and plasma cells. In this article, we present a case of granuloma formation with multiple Langhans giant cells along with an overview of the differential diagnoses, which include mycobacterium diseases, other bacterial infections, fungal infections, protozoal infections, and other granulomatous diseases.

Survey of parasitic fauna of different ornamental freshwater fish species in Iran

Adel, Milad; Ghasempour, Fatemeh; Azizi, Hamid Reza; Shateri, Mohamad Hadi; Safian, Ahmad Reza
Fonte: Urmia University Press Publicador: Urmia University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
281.7075%
Parasitic diseases are harmful and limiting factors in breeding and rearing ornamental fish industry. In this study, 400 apparently healthy ornamental fishes from five species (each species 80 specimens) including: Goldfish (Carassius auratus), guppy (Poecilia reticulate), angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare), discus (Symphsodon discus) and sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna) was obtained from a local ornamental fish farm in the north of Iran during 2011 to 2012. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the parasitic infections of aquarium fish in Iran. For this purpose, fish were first examined for ectoparasites using wet mount under a light microscope. Then, the alimentary ducts of fish were observed under light and stereo microscope. In survey of different infection rates for different parasitic infections in examining fish: Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Trichodina reticulata, Capillaria sp. and Lernaea cyprinacea were collected from five species. All five fish species had Monogenea (Gyrodactylidae and Dactylogyridae) in their skins and gills, the highest prevalence was observed in C. auratus and the lowest was in P. scalare and S. discus. Also, Capillaria sp. was reported as a first record from the abdominal cavity of P. scalare in Iran. Our findings revealed that the protozoal infections are very common among aquarium fishes. Although...

Antibiotic resistance in prevalent bacterial and protozoan sexually transmitted infections

Krupp, Karl; Madhivanan, Purnima
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
279.11586%
The emergence of multi-drug resistant sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is causing a treatment crisis across the globe. While cephalosporin-resistant gonorrhea is one of the most pressing issues, extensively antibiotic resistant Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis are also becoming commonplace. Experts have suggested that the failure of current treatment regimens are “largely inevitable” and have called for entirely new classes of antimicrobial agents. With the exception of several new classes of drugs primarily targeting nosocomial infections, progress has been slow. While pharmaceutical companies continue to introduce new drugs, they are based on decade-old discoveries. While there is disagreement about what constitutes new classes of antibiotics, many experts suggest that the last truly new family of antimicrobials was discovered in 1987. This review summarizes the existing literature on antibiotic resistance in common bacterial and protozoal STIs. It also briefly discusses several of the most promising alternatives to current therapies, and further examines how advances in drug delivery, formulation, concentration, and timing are improving the efficacy of existing treatments. Finally, the paper discusses the current state of pharmaceutical development for multidrug-resistant STI.

Soroepidemiologia de Sarcocystis neurona, Toxoplasma gondii e Neospora spp. em cavalos Mangalarga Marchador criados no sul de Minas, Brasil; Seroepidemiology of Sarcocystis neurona, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora spp. in Mangalarga Marchador horses created in South of Minas, Brazil

Ribeiro, Manoel Junqueira Maciel
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Lavras; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinárias; UFLA; brasil; Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Publicador: Universidade Federal de Lavras; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinárias; UFLA; brasil; Departamento de Medicina Veterinária
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em 12/11/2015 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
283.89842%
The study subjects were the equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (MPE), caused by Sarcocystis neurona, toxoplasmosis, zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii, and neosporosis, caused by Neospora caninum and N. hughesi. These protozoa are acquired by ingesting contaminated food and water, causing neurological and reproductive disorders, predominantly subclinical infections, causing losses to farmers. Once the southern Minas stands out in national equidculture for being the birthplace of Mangalarga Marchador horse, being economically strategic for the creation of the breed, the study aimed to determine the prevalence of antibodies against these parasites in horses of this breed created in the region and check the risk factors associated with positivity. 506 clinically healthy horses were analyzed, from 53 properties located in southern Minas Gerais. Serum samples were subjected to indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) with cutoff of 1:80, 1:64 and 1:50 respectively for S. neurona, T. gondii and Neospora spp. The seroprevalence found among horses for these three parasites were respectively 26%, 19.9% and 23.9%. In the properties, these prevalences were 88.3%...

Comparison of the sensitivity of microscopy and culture in the laboratory diagnosis of intestinal protozoal infection.

McMillan, A; McNeillage, G J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1984 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
283.89842%
Concentration of protozoal cysts from faeces by the formol-ether method and faecal culture on Robinson's medium were studied to determine their diagnostic value among patients attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic in Edinburgh. Of 450 men studied Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia were identified in the faeces of 10.7 and 5.1% respectively. Thirty (81.1%) of 37 men with E histolytica and 11 (47.8%) of 23 men with G lamblia infections would not have been identified if formol-ether concentration had not been undertaken. Culture of faeces in Robinson's medium led to the detection of a further 11 men with amoebiasis. Oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp were not identified in faecal samples from 130 men.

Infectious complications associated with renal transplantation: an analysis of risk factors.

Ahern, M. J.; Comite, H.; Andriole, V. T.
Fonte: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine Publicador: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1978 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
285.68982%
To assess the multiple risk factors reported to be associated with onset of serious bacterial, fungal, viral, and protozoal infections in renal allograft recipients, a retrospective study of all renal transplantations performed at Yale-New Haven Medical Center from the inception of the transplantation program in December, 1967, to December, 1975, was undertaken. Ninety-six renal allograft transplants in 85 patients were available for evaluation during this study period. Renal allograft recipients were evaluated for incidence of infection from time of transplantation until transplant nephrectomy, death, or January 1, 1976. All infections were characterized by type of infection, organism, site, and time of onset post-transplantation. Recipients with infections were also evaluated for their donor type, living-related or cadaveric, age at time of transplantation, granulocytopenia, corticosteroid therapy, and rejection episodes. There were 215 infections, 92 of which were defined as serious, in 78 of the 96 renal allograft recipients. Eighteen renal allograft recipients had no infections. Granulocytopenia, but not rejection, correlated with serious infections at some time in the patient's course. However, no significant temporal relationship between serious infections and episodes of granulocytopenia or rejection could be established. Mortality rate and incidence of serious infection was higher in the group receiving high dose corticosteroid therapy compared with the group receiving lower doses of corticosteroids. The mortality rate in these 85 transplant recipients was 33%. Seventy-four percent of these deaths were directly related to infection (24% of 85 patients).

Transmission and Epidemiology of Zoonotic Protozoal Diseases of Companion Animals

Esch, Kevin J.; Petersen, Christine A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
292.82104%
Over 77 million dogs and 93 million cats share our households in the United States. Multiple studies have demonstrated the importance of pets in their owners' physical and mental health. Given the large number of companion animals in the United States and the proximity and bond of these animals with their owners, understanding and preventing the diseases that these companions bring with them are of paramount importance. Zoonotic protozoal parasites, including toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease, babesiosis, giardiasis, and leishmaniasis, can cause insidious infections, with asymptomatic animals being capable of transmitting disease. Giardia and Toxoplasma gondii, endemic to the United States, have high prevalences in companion animals. Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi are found regionally within the United States. These diseases have lower prevalences but are significant sources of human disease globally and are expanding their companion animal distribution. Thankfully, healthy individuals in the United States are protected by intact immune systems and bolstered by good nutrition, sanitation, and hygiene. Immunocompromised individuals, including the growing number of obese and/or diabetic people, are at a much higher risk of developing zoonoses. Awareness of these often neglected diseases in all health communities is important for protecting pets and owners. To provide this awareness...