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DNA and a CpG Oligonucleotide Derived from Babesia bovis Are Mitogenic for Bovine B Cells

Brown, Wendy C.; Estes, D. Mark; Chantler, Sue Ellen; Kegerreis, Kimberly A.; Suarez, Carlos E.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
298.31188%
DNAs from bacteria and variety of nonvertebrate organisms, including nematodes, mollusks, yeasts, and insects, cause polyclonal activation of murine B lymphocytes. Similar studies have not been reported for bovine B cells, and to date no studies have reported mitogenic properties of protozoal DNA for any species. However, we and others have observed that protozoal parasite antigens can induce the proliferation of lymphocytes from nonexposed donors. Extending these studies, we now show that the mitogenic property of protozoal antigen preparations is in part attributable to parasite DNA and that Babesia bovis DNA is directly mitogenic for bovine B cells. DNase treatment of B. bovis extracts abrogated B. bovis-induced proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from nonexposed cattle. Like DNAs from other organisms that were mitogenic for murine B cells, B. bovis DNA is largely nonmethylated and induced a dose-dependent proliferation of bovine B cells, which was reduced upon methylation. Furthermore, B. bovis and E. coli DNAs enhanced immunoglobulin secretion by cultured B cells, inducing moderate increases in immunoglobulin G1 and stronger increases in immunoglobulin G2. Because certain nonmethylated CpG motifs present in bacterial DNA are known to stimulate proliferation of murine and human B cells...

Genetic Variation among Isolates of Sarcocystis neurona, the Agent of Protozoal Myeloencephalitis, as Revealed by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Markers

Elsheikha, H. M.; Schott, H. C.; Mansfield, L. S.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
383.89844%
Sarcocystis neurona causes serious neurological disease in horses and other vertebrates in the Americas. Based on epidemiological data, this parasite has recently emerged. Here, the genetic diversity of Sarcocystis neurona was evaluated using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method. Fifteen S. neurona taxa from different regions collected over the last 10 years were used; six isolates were from clinically diseased horses, eight isolates were from wild-caught opossums (Didelphis virginiana), and one isolate was from a cowbird (Molothrus ater). Additionally, four outgroup taxa were also fingerprinted. Nine primer pairs were used to generate AFLP patterns, with a total number of amplified fragments ranging from 30 to 60, depending on the isolate and primers tested. Based on the presence/absence of amplified AFLP fragments and pairwise similarity values, all the S. neurona isolates tested were clustered in one monophyletic group. No significant correlation could be found between genomic similarity and host origin of the S. neurona isolates. AFLP revealed significant intraspecific genetic variations, and S. neurona appeared as a highly variable species. Furthermore, linkage disequilibrium analysis suggested that S. neurona populations within Michigan have an intermediate type of population structure that includes characteristics of both clonal and panamictic population structures. AFLP is a reliable molecular technique that has provided one of the most informative approaches to ascertain phylogenetic relationships in S. neurona and its closest relatives...

Toxoplasma gondii Upregulates Interleukin-12 To Prevent Plasmodium berghei-Induced Experimental Cerebral Malaria

Settles, Erik W.; Moser, Lindsey A.; Harris, Tajie H.; Knoll, Laura J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
374.90438%
A chronic infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii has previously been shown to protect mice against subsequent viral, bacterial, or protozoal infections. Here we have shown that a chronic T. gondii infection can prevent Plasmodium berghei ANKA-induced experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) in C57BL/6 mice. Treatment with soluble T. gondii antigens (STAg) reduced parasite sequestration and T cell infiltration in the brains of P. berghei-infected mice. Administration of STAg also preserved blood-brain barrier function, reduced ECM symptoms, and significantly decreased mortality. STAg treatment 24 h post-P. berghei infection led to a rapid increase in serum levels of interleukin 12 (IL-12) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ). By 5 days after P. berghei infection, STAg-treated mice had reduced IFN-γ levels compared to those of mock-treated mice, suggesting that reductions in IFN-γ at the time of ECM onset protected against lethality. Using IL-10- and IL-12βR-deficient mice, we found that STAg-induced protection from ECM is IL-10 independent but IL-12 dependent. Treatment of P. berghei-infected mice with recombinant IL-12 significantly decreased parasitemia and mortality. These data suggest that IL-12, either induced by STAg or injected as a recombinant protein...