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A Meta-analysis of the Effectiveness of Albendazole Compared with Metronidazole as Treatments for Infections with Giardia duodenalis

Solaymani-Mohammadi, Shahram; Genkinger, Jeanine M.; Loffredo, Christopher A.; Singer, Steven M.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/05/2010 EN
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Giardiasis is one of the most common intestinal protozoal infections worldwide. Although metronidazole is the most common drug used to treat giardiasis in humans, its use is associated with a variety of side effects. Poor compliance and the emergence of metronidazole-resistant strains may restrict use of the drug. Albendazole is an orally administered broad-spectrum anthelmintic agent. The use of albendazole has fewer side effects than metronidazole. The anthelmintic has been used against Giardia duodenalis both in vivo and in vitro with different results. However, the current meta-analysis assessed the effectiveness and safety of albendazole compared with metronidazole for the treatment of giardiasis in humans. After searching different databases, eight comparative randomized clinical trials, including 900 patients, met our criteria and were selected for the current meta-analysis. Results showed that albendazole was as effective as metronidazole for the treatment of giardiasis in humans and people receiving the drug tended to have fewer side effects compared with those who received metronidazole. Given the safety, effectiveness, and low costs of albendazole, this drug may be considered a potential alternative and/or a replacement for the existing widely used metronidazole in the treatment of giardiasis in humans.

Trypanosome Lytic Factor, an Antimicrobial High-Density Lipoprotein, Ameliorates Leishmania Infection

Samanovic, Marie; Molina-Portela, Maria Pilar; Chessler, Anne-Danielle C.; Raper, Jayne; Burleigh, Barbara
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading microorganisms. Trypanosome Lytic Factor (TLF) is a minor sub-fraction of human high-density lipoprotein that provides innate immunity by completely protecting humans from infection by most species of African trypanosomes, which belong to the Kinetoplastida order. Herein, we demonstrate the broader protective effects of human TLF, which inhibits intracellular infection by Leishmania, a kinetoplastid that replicates in phagolysosomes of macrophages. We show that TLF accumulates within the parasitophorous vacuole of macrophages in vitro and reduces the number of Leishmania metacyclic promastigotes, but not amastigotes. We do not detect any activation of the macrophages by TLF in the presence or absence of Leishmania, and therefore propose that TLF directly damages the parasite in the acidic parasitophorous vacuole. To investigate the physiological relevance of this observation, we have reconstituted lytic activity in vivo by generating mice that express the two main protein components of TLFs: human apolipoprotein L-I and haptoglobin-related protein. Both proteins are expressed in mice at levels equivalent to those found in humans and circulate within high-density lipoproteins. We find that TLF mice can ameliorate an infection with Leishmania by significantly reducing the pathogen burden. In contrast...

Risk Factor Analyses for Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in a Randomized Study of Early vs. Deferred ART during an Opportunistic Infection

Grant, Philip M.; Sereti, Irini; Pahwa, Savita; Lederman, Michael M.; Eron, Joseph; Sanne, Ian; Powderly, William; Hogg, Evelyn; Suckow, Carol; Zolopa, Andrew; Komarow, Lauren Hope; Andersen, Janet W.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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374.90438%
Background: Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is reported widely in patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, few studies are prospective, and no study has evaluated the impact of the timing of ART when allocated randomly during an acute opportunistic infection (OI). Methodology/Principal Findings: A5164 randomized 282 subjects with AIDS-related OIs (tuberculosis excluded), to early or deferred ART. IRIS was identified prospectively using pre-defined criteria. We evaluated associations between IRIS and baseline variables in subjects with follow-up on ART using Wilcoxon and Fisher's exact tests, logistic regression, and Cox models with time-varying covariates. Twenty of 262 (7.6%) subjects developed IRIS after a median of 33 days on ART. Subjects with fungal infections (other than pneumocystis) developed IRIS somewhat more frequently (OR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.02, 7.2; p-value = 0.06 (using Fisher's exact test)). In Cox models, lower baseline and higher on-treatment CD4+ T-cell counts and percentage were associated with IRIS. Additionally, higher baseline and lower on-treatment HIV RNA levels were associated with IRIS. Corticosteroids during OI management and the timing of ART were not associated with the development of IRIS. Implications: In patients with advanced immunosuppression and non-tuberculous OIs...