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Chagas disease in Mexico: an analysis of geographical distribution during the past 76 years - A review

Cruz-Reyes,Alejandro; Pickering-López,José Miguel
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2006 EN
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462.03457%
Literature from 1928 through 2004 was compiled from different document sources published in Mexico or elsewhere. From these 907 publications, we found 19 different topics of Chagas disease study in Mexico. The publications were arranged by decade and also by state. This information was used to construct maps describing the distribution of Chagas disease according to different criteria: the disease, vectors, reservoirs, and strains. One of the major problems confronting study of this zoonotic disease is the great biodiversity of the vector species; there are 30 different species, with at least 10 playing a major role in human infection. The high variability of climates and biogeographic regions further complicate study and understanding of the dynamics of this disease in each region of the country. We used a desktop Genetic Algorithm for Rule-Set Prediction procedure to provide ecological models of organism niches, offering improved flexibility for choosing predictive environmental and ecological data. This approach may help to identify regions at risk of disease, plan vector-control programs, and explore parasitic reservoir association. With this collected information, we have constructed a data base: CHAGMEX, available online in html format.

An alternative for antibiotic se in poultry: probiotics

Edens,FW
Fonte: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas Publicador: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2003 EN
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Over the past 50 years, there has been increasing amounts of antibiotics used prophylactically and as growth promoters. Today, there is a consumer and governmental outcry to eliminate that practice from poultry and livestock production. Evidence has been accumulated to show that there is a link between risk of zoonotic disease and growth promoting antibiotic usage in livestock and poultry. Therefore, alternatives to the use of growth promoting antibiotics must be found to promote growth or production at or near the genetic potential of the modern day broiler, turkey, and egg producer. The use of probiotics has many potential benefits and include modified host metabolism, immuno-stimulation, anti-inflammatory reactions, exclusion and killing of pathogens in the intestinal tract, reduced bacterial contamination on processed broiler carcasses, enhanced nutrient absorption and performance, and ultimately decreased human health risk. The development of these factors generally can be ascribed to the ability of most probiotic products to balance and maintain the intestinal microflora in poultry species.

Geographic, clinical, serologic, and molecular evidence of granulocytic ehrlichiosis, a likely zoonotic disease, in Minnesota and Wisconsin dogs.

Greig, B; Asanovich, K M; Armstrong, P J; Dumler, J S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1996 EN
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Seventeen Minnesota and Wisconsin dogs with granulocytic ehrlichosis were studied. The diagnoses were made by finding ehrlichia morulae in peripheral blood neutrophils. Eight dogs were studied retrospectively, and nine dogs were studied prospectively. The medical records of all dogs were reviewed. Eighty-eight percent of the dogs were purebred and 76% were spayed females. The median age was 8 years. Sixty-five percent of the cases were diagnosed in October and November. Fever and lethargy were the most common clinical signs. The most frequent laboratory findings were lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, elevated activities of serum alkaline phosphatase and amylase, and hypoalbuminemia. No dogs seroreacted to Ehrlichia canis or Ehrlichia chaffeensis antigens, which are cross-reactive. Seventy-five percent of the dogs tested during the acute phase of disease and 100% of the dogs tested during convalescence were seropositive for E. equi antigens. Granulocytic ehrlichial 16S rRNA gene DNAs from six dogs were amplified by PCR. Sequence analysis of a 919-bp sequence of the ehrlichial 16S rRNA gene amplified by PCR from the blood of two dogs revealed the agent to be identical to the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in Minnesota and Wisconsin and to be very similar to E. equi and Ehrlichia phagocytophila and less similar to E. canis...

Zoonotic disease concerns in animal-assisted therapy and animal visitation programs

Waltner-Toews, David
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1993 EN
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489.9379%
A survey was done of 150 systematically selected United States animal care agencies and 74 Canadian humane societies to determine the prevalence of animal assisted therapy (AAT) programs; concerns about, and experience with, zoonotic diseases; and precautions taken to prevent zoonotic disease transmission. Of the 69 US agencies and 49 Canadian societies that reported having AAT programs, 94% used dogs and/or cats in their programs, 28% used rabbits, 15% used “pocket pets” (hamsters, gerbils, mice, guinea pigs), and 10% used birds (excluding poultry). About two-thirds of the programs were involved with the elderly in nursing homes, about a quarter of them worked with schools, and a quarter worked with hospitals. Half of the respondents had concerns about zoonotic disease control. Rabies, ringworm, and external parasitism were the most commonly cited zoonotic diseases of concern. Few concerns were based on actual experience. Fewer than half of the programs consulted a health professional about prevention of zoonotic diseases. Only 10% of the respondents reported having printed guidelines about the prevention of zoonotic disease transmission. Practising veterinarians are encouraged to make their expertise available to local AAT programs.

Perspectives on emerging zoonotic disease research and capacity building in Canada

Stephen, Craig; Artsob, Harvey; Bowie, William R; Drebot, Michael; Fraser, Erin; Leighton, Ted; Morshed, Muhammad; Ong, Corinne; Patrick, David
Fonte: Pulsus Group Inc Publicador: Pulsus Group Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 EN
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470.4941%
Zoonoses are fundamental determinants of community health. Preventing, identifying and managing these infections must be a central public health focus. Most current zoonoses research focuses on the interface of the pathogen and the clinically ill person, emphasizing microbial detection, mechanisms of pathogenicity and clinical intervention strategies, rather than examining the causes of emergence, persistence and spread of new zoonoses. There are gaps in the understanding of the animal determinants of emergence and the capacity to train highly qualified individuals; these are major obstacles to preventing new disease threats. The ability to predict the emergence of zoonoses and their resulting public health and societal impacts are hindered when insufficient effort is devoted to understanding zoonotic disease epidemiology, and when zoonoses are not examined in a manner that yields fundamental insight into their origin and spread.

Preventing zoonotic diseases in immunocompromised persons: the role of physicians and veterinarians.

Grant, S.; Olsen, C. W.
Fonte: Centers for Disease Control Publicador: Centers for Disease Control
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1999 EN
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478.94703%
We surveyed physicians and veterinarians in Wisconsin about the risk for and prevention of zoonotic diseases in immunocompromised persons. We found that physicians and veterinarians hold significantly different views about the risks posed by certain infectious agents and species of animals and communicate very little about zoonotic issues; moreover, physicians believe that veterinarians should be involved in many aspects of zoonotic disease prevention, including patient education.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection as a zoonotic disease: transmission between humans and elephants.

Michalak, K.; Austin, C.; Diesel, S.; Bacon, M. J.; Zimmerman, P.; Maslow, J. N.
Fonte: Centers for Disease Control Publicador: Centers for Disease Control
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
457.2593%
Between 1994 and 1996, three elephants from an exotic animal farm in Illinois died of pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In October 1996, a fourth living elephant was culture-positive for M. tuberculosis. Twenty-two handlers at the farm were screened for tuberculosis (TB); eleven had positive reactions to intradermal injection with purified protein derivative. One had smear-negative, culture-positive active TB. DNA fingerprint comparison by IS6110 and TBN12 typing showed that the isolates from the four elephants and the handler with active TB were the same strain. This investigation indicates transmission of M. tuberculosis between humans and elephants.

Perspectives on emerging zoonotic disease research and capacity building in Canada.

Stephen, Craig; Artsob, Harvey; Bowie, William R.; Drebot, Michael; Fraser, Erin; Leighton, Ted; Morshed, Muhammad; Ong, Corinne; Patrick, David
Fonte: Canadian Veterinary Medical Association Publicador: Canadian Veterinary Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
474.15516%
Zoonoses are fundamental determinants of community health. Preventing, identifying and managing these infections must be a central public health focus. Most current zoonoses research focuses on the interface of the pathogen and the clinically ill person, emphasizing microbial detection, mechanisms of pathogenicity and clinical intervention strategies, rather than examining the causes of emergence, persistence and spread of new zoonoses. There are gaps in the understanding of the animal determinants of emergence and the capacity to train highly qualified individuals; these are major obstacles to preventing new disease threats. The ability to predict the emergence of zoonoses and their resulting public health and societal impacts are hindered when insufficient effort is devoted to understanding zoonotic disease epidemiology, and when zoonoses are not examined in a manner that yields fundamental insight into their origin and spread. Emerging infectious disease research should rest on four pillars: enhanced communications across disciplinary and agency boundaries; the assessment and development of surveillance and disease detection tools; the examination of linkages between animal health determinants of human health outcomes; and finally...

B-Virus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) Infection in Humans and Macaques: Potential for Zoonotic Disease

Huff, Jennifer L.; Barry, Peter A.
Fonte: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Publicador: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
480.261%
Nonhuman primates are widely used in biomedical research because of their genetic, anatomic, and physiologic similarities to humans. In this setting, human contact directly with macaques or with their tissues and fluids sometimes occurs. Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus), an alphaherpesvirus endemic in Asian macaques, is closely related to herpes simplex virus (HSV). Most macaques carry B virus without overt signs of disease. However, zoonotic infection with B virus in humans usually results in fatal encephalomyelitis or severe neurologic impairment. Although the incidence of human infection with B virus is low, a death rate of >70% before the availability of antiviral therapy makes this virus a serious zoonotic threat. Knowledge of the clinical signs and risk factors for human B-virus disease allows early initiation of antiviral therapy and prevents severe disease or death.

Multilocus Sequence Typing of Bartonella henselae in the United Kingdom Indicates that Only a Few, Uncommon Sequence Types Are Associated with Zoonotic Disease▿†

Chaloner, Gemma L.; Harrison, Timothy G.; Coyne, Karen P.; Aanensen, David M.; Birtles, Richard J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
478.94703%
Bartonella henselae is one of the most common zoonotic agents acquired from companion animals (cats) in industrialized countries. Nonetheless, although the prevalence of infections in cats is high, the number of human cases reported is relatively low. One hypothesis for this discrepancy is that B. henselae strains vary in their zoonotic potential. To test this hypothesis, we employed structured sampling to explore the population structure of B. henselae in the United Kingdom and to determine the distribution of strains associated with zoonotic disease within this structure. A total of 118 B. henselae strains were delineated into 12 sequence types (STs) using multilocus sequence typing. We observed that most (85%) of the zoonosis-associated strains belonged to only three genotypes, i.e., ST2, ST5, and ST8. Conversely, most (74%) of the feline isolates belonged to ST4, ST6, and ST7. The difference in host association of ST2, ST5, and ST8 (zoonosis associated) and ST6 (feline) was statistically significant (P < 0.05), indicating that a few, uncommon STs were responsible for the majority of symptomatic human infections.

State-level Zoonotic Disease Surveillance in the United States

Scotch, Matthew; Rabinowitz, Peter; Brandt, Cynthia
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
474.68086%
Most emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, yet recent commissions have highlighted deficiencies in their surveillance. We conducted a survey to understand the needs of state agencies for zoonotic disease surveillance. The findings will hopefully support the development of biomedical informatics applications that can link animal and human data for surveillance.

A framework for the study of zoonotic disease emergence and its drivers: spillover of bat pathogens as a case study

Wood, James L. N.; Leach, Melissa; Waldman, Linda; MacGregor, Hayley; Fooks, Anthony R.; Jones, Kate E.; Restif, Olivier; Dechmann, Dina; Hayman, David T. S.; Baker, Kate S.; Peel, Alison J.; Kamins, Alexandra O.; Fahr, Jakob; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Yaa; Suu-Ire,
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/10/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
479.11637%
Many serious emerging zoonotic infections have recently arisen from bats, including Ebola, Marburg, SARS-coronavirus, Hendra, Nipah, and a number of rabies and rabies-related viruses, consistent with the overall observation that wildlife are an important source of emerging zoonoses for the human population. Mechanisms underlying the recognized association between ecosystem health and human health remain poorly understood and responding appropriately to the ecological, social and economic conditions that facilitate disease emergence and transmission represents a substantial societal challenge. In the context of disease emergence from wildlife, wildlife and habitat should be conserved, which in turn will preserve vital ecosystem structure and function, which has broader implications for human wellbeing and environmental sustainability, while simultaneously minimizing the spillover of pathogens from wild animals into human beings. In this review, we propose a novel framework for the holistic and interdisciplinary investigation of zoonotic disease emergence and its drivers, using the spillover of bat pathogens as a case study. This study has been developed to gain a detailed interdisciplinary understanding, and it combines cutting-edge perspectives from both natural and social sciences...

Managing patients for zoonotic disease in hospitals

Warwick, Clifford; Corning, Susan
Fonte: SAGE Publications Publicador: SAGE Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/07/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
474.68086%
Zoonoses involve infections and infestations transmissible from animals to humans. Zoonoses are a major global threat. Exposure to zoonotic pathogens exists in various settings including encroachment on nature; foreign travel; pet keeping; bushmeat consumption; attendance at zoological parks, petting zoos, school ‘animal contact experiences’, wildlife markets, circuses, and domesticated and exotic animal farms. Under-ascertainment is believed to be common and the frequency of some zoonotic disease appears to be increasing. Zoonoses include direct, indirect and aerosolized transmission. Improved awareness of zoonoses in the hospital environment may be important to the growing need for prevention and control. We reviewed relevant literature for the years 2000 to present and identified a significant need for the promotion of awareness and management of zoonoses in the hospital environment. This article provides a new decision-tree, as well as staff and patient guidance on the prevention and control of zoonoses associated with hospitals.

Identifying future zoonotic disease threats: Where are the gaps in our understanding of primate infectious diseases?

Cooper, Natalie; Nunn, Charles L.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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470.4941%
Across all primates, less than two thirds of primate viruses, protozoa and helminths have currently been recorded. Similar effects emerge in analyses of parasite sampling by country, and for individual primate species. Therefore a great deal more disease sampling is needed to understand zoonotic disease risks to humans.

The Importance of Veterinary Policy in Preventing the Emergence and Re-Emergence of Zoonotic Disease: Examining the Case of Human African Trypanosomiasis in Uganda

Okello, Anna L.; Welburn, Susan C.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/11/2014 EN
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487.4172%
Rapid changes in human behavior, resource utilization, and other extrinsic environmental factors continue to threaten the current distribution of several endemic and historically neglected zoonoses in many developing regions worldwide. There are numerous examples of zoonotic diseases which have circulated within relatively localized geographical areas for some time, before emerging into new regions as a result of changing human, environmental, or behavioral dynamics. While the world’s focus is currently on the Ebola virus gaining momentum in western Africa, another pertinent example of this phenomenon is zoonotic human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), endemic to south and eastern Africa, and spread via infected cattle. In recent years, the ongoing northwards spread of this disease in the country has posed a serious public health threat to the human population of Uganda, increasing the pressure on both individual families and government services to control the disease. Moreover, the emergence of HAT into new areas of Uganda in recent years exemplifies the important role of veterinary policy in mitigating the severe human health and economic impacts of zoonotic disease. The systemic challenges surrounding the development and enforcement of veterinary policy described here are similar across sub-Saharan Africa...

Complex Epidemiology of a Zoonotic Disease in a Culturally Diverse Region: Phylogeography of Rabies Virus in the Middle East

Horton, Daniel L.; McElhinney, Lorraine M.; Freuling, Conrad M.; Marston, Denise A.; Banyard, Ashley C.; Goharrriz, Hooman; Wise, Emma; Breed, Andrew C.; Saturday, Greg; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Zilahi, Erika; Al-Kobaisi, Muhannad F.; Nowotny, Norbert; Muell
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/03/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
467.74832%
The Middle East is a culturally and politically diverse region at the gateway between Europe, Africa and Asia. Spatial dynamics of the fatal zoonotic disease rabies among countries of the Middle East and surrounding regions is poorly understood. An improved understanding of virus distribution is necessary to direct control methods. Previous studies have suggested regular trans-boundary movement, but have been unable to infer direction. Here we address these issues, by investigating the evolution of 183 rabies virus isolates collected from over 20 countries between 1972 and 2014. We have undertaken a discrete phylogeographic analysis on a subset of 139 samples to infer where and when movements of rabies have occurred. We provide evidence for four genetically distinct clades with separate origins currently circulating in the Middle East and surrounding countries. Introductions of these viruses have been followed by regular and multidirectional trans-boundary movements in some parts of the region, but relative isolation in others. There is evidence for minimal regular incursion of rabies from Central and Eastern Asia. These data support current initiatives for regional collaboration that are essential for rabies elimination.

Reducing Climate-Sensitive Disease Risks

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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Disease risks to humans, animals, and plants are determined by interconnected environmental variables that affect incidence, transmission, and outbreak. Climate change affects many of the environmental variables that lead to disease. Regardless of the species involved, the impacts can ultimately affect the health, livelihood, and economic security of humans. The objective of this World Bank economic and sector work is to build on scientific and operational knowledge of early action tools to help practitioners reduce the risks of key climate-sensitive infectious diseases by strengthening risk management systems for disease outbreaks. The report includes an assessment of known interventions such as the establishment of surveillance systems, the development of region and nation-specific disease outlooks, the creation of climate-sensitive disease risk maps, and the construction and implementation of early warning advisory systems. This research highlights the need for better understanding of the evolving interactions between the environment and emerging and reemerging disease pathogens. It also points to the inseparable interactions between animal health and human health...

People, Pathogens, and Our Planet : Volume One - Towards a One Health Approach for Controlling Zoonotic Diseases

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
493.6297%
Whether living in urban or rural environments, humans tend to perceive the world around them as being shaped by culture and industry more than by natural history. Humans, however, are part of a biological continuum that covers all living species. Charles Darwin's 200th birthday in 2009 could serve to remind us of this. All animals, including humans but also plants, fungi, and bacteria, share the same basic biochemical principles of metabolism, reproduction, and development. Most pathogens can infect more than one host species, including humans. In 1964, veterinary epidemiologist Calvin Schwabe coined the term "one medicine" to capture the interrelatedness between animal and human health, and the medical realities of preventing and controlling zoonotic diseases or "zoonoses" -diseases that are communicable between animals and humans. One medicine signaled the recognition of the risks that zoonotic diseases pose to people, their food supplies, and their economies. Given the interrelatedness of human, animal...

DNA-based vaccines protect against zoonotic schistosomiasis in water buffalo

Da'Dara , Akram A; Li, Yue-Sheng; Xiong, Tie; Zhou, Jie; Williams, Gail; McManus, Donald P; Feng, Zeng; Yu, Xin-Ling; Gray, Darren; Harn , Donald A
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
470.4941%
Schistosomiasis japonica is an endemic, zoonotic disease of major public health importance in China where water buffaloes account for approximately 75% of disease transmission. Interventions that reduce schistosome infection in water buffaloes will enhanc

Understanding Environmental and Anthropogenic Drivers of Lemur Health in Madagascar: The Importance of a One Health Perspective

Barrett, Meredith Ann
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2011
Relevância na Pesquisa
486.46812%

Anthropogenic effects on ecosystems have expanded in their scope and intensity, with significant consequences for global environmental, wildlife and human health. As human encroachment into wildlife habitat grows, habitat degradation and fragmentation intensify, leading to increased contact among wildlife, humans and domestic animals. Due to this increasing frequency of interaction, and the emergence of several high-profile diseases, global concern has grown over the risk of emerging infectious disease from zoonotic origins.

Due to Madagascar's rampant rate of human population growth and deforestation, its incredible species diversity, the widespread presence of domestic and invasive species, and its evolutionary isolation, it can be viewed as a high risk region for potential disease emergence. There is a need for assessment of the zoonotic and reverse zoonotic disease potential within this country.

To contribute to this assessment, consistent baseline health monitoring provides an effective tool for evaluating wildlife health and preparing for future disease occurrences. Limited, disconnected surveys of lemur health have occurred, yet there remained a need for more extensive, country-wide evaluations that also addresses invasive species...